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Sample processing of cultivated chickpea and wild relatives genetic resources

Contributors to this page: ICRISAT, Patancheru, India (Hari D Upadhyaya, Shivali Sharma, Cholenahalli L Laxmipathi Gowda, Dintyala Sastry, Sube Singh); NBPGR, New Delhi, India (Shyam Sharma); ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria (Ahmed Amri, Kenneth Street, Natalya Rukhkyan), SARC-RIPP, Piestany, Slovak Republic (Gabriela Antalikova); Institute of Plant Genetic Resources ‘K.Malkov’, Sadovo, Bulgaria (Siyka Stoyanova); Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia (Bob Redden); IPK, Gatersleben, Germany (Andreas Börner).

Contents:
Seed cleaning
Seed drying
Seed moisture content

 
Seed Cleaning

Cleaning is the removal of physical contamination from the plant material after harvest, before it can be stored. The ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009) recommends:

Visual inspection of seeds

This is a quality control that must be done after harvesting the seeds. ICRISAT’s Genebank Manual Procedures (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009) recommends:

Special treatments

Disposal of contaminated material

The Germplasm Exchange and Quarantine of ICRISAT Mandate Crops recommends the following procedures:

Inspection and certification

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Seed drying

Methods

Most genebanks follow FAO/IPGRI Standards as well as the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009):

Controlled environment facility for germplasm seed drying at ICRISAT (photo: ICRISAT)

IPK (Gatersleben, Germany) uses procedures based on requirements of the IPK quality management system (DIN EN ISO 9001:2000):

Drying time

According to procedures of the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009):

Moisture content before drying

According to procedures of FAO/IPGRI Standards, as well as the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009):

Moisture content for storage

Critical moisture content

The equilibrium relationship between seed moisture content and RH for chickpea storage is described in the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009).

Recording information during seed cleaning and drying

The following information should be recorded for each processing step:

* This could be restricted to being done once, during characterization and does not need to be repeated at every regeneration cycle.

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Determination of seed moisture content

Methods

According to the ISTA Standards:

Sampling frequency

This is important to cover the diversity in the accessions especially the seed traits.

Sample size

According to the ISTA Standards:

Grinding

According to the ISTA Standards:

Oven drying temperature

According to the ISTA Standards:

Others

According to the ISTA Standards:

Recording information during determination of seed moisture content

The following information should be recorded for each step:

References and further reading

Chakrabarty SK, Anitha K, Girish AG, Sarath BB, Prasada RRDVJ, Varaprasad KS, Khetarpal RK, Thakur RP. 2005. Germplasm Exchange and Quarantine of ICRISAT Mandate Crops. Information Bulletin No. 69. Rajendranagar 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India: National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources; and Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 80 pp. ISBN 92-9066-481-9.

FAO/IPGRI. 1994. Genebank standards. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic.

Hanson J. 1985. Procedures for handling seeds in genebanks. Practical manuals for genebanks no. 1. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome. http://www.bioversityinternational.org/index.php?id=19&user_bioversitypublications_pi1[showUid]=2235.

ISTA. 1993. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association. Bassersdorf, Switzerland. Seed Science and Technology 21 (Supplement):1-288.

ISTA. 2003. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association. Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

ISTA. 2005. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association. Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

Rao NK, Hanson J, Dulloo ME, Ghosh K, Nowel D, Larinde M. 2006. Manual of seed handling in genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy. Available in English (1.5 MB), Spanish (1.4 MB) and French (1.9 MB).

Stoyanova SD. 1992. Drying chickpea seeds for long-term preservation in genebanks. PGR-Newsletter 90:19-27.

Upadhyaya HD, Laxmipathi Gowda CL. 2009. Managing and Enhancing the Use of Germplasm – Strategies and Methodologies. Technical Manual no. 10. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 236 pp.

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The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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