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Viability of cultivated chickpea and wild relatives genetic resources

Contributors to this page: ICRISAT, Patancheru, India (Hari D Upadhyaya, Shivali Sharma, Cholenahalli L Laxmipathi Gowda, Dintyala Sastry, Sube Singh); NBPGR, New Delhi, India (Shyam Sharma); ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria (Ahmed Amri, Kenneth Street, Natalya Rukhkyan), SARC-RIPP, Piestany, Slovak Republic (Gabriela Antalikova); Institute of Plant Genetic Resources ‘K.Malkov’, Sadovo, Bulgaria (Siyka Stoyanova); Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia (Bob Redden); IPK, Gatersleben, Germany (Andreas Börner).

Contents:
Viability testing
Routine monitoring

Viability testing

Using a sequential viability test on chickpea (photo: ICARDA)

Laboratory methods

Describes the various recommended options, to test the viability and quality of chickpea seeds. The percentage of germination of the stored seeds of the accessions determines when regeneration of the accessions should take place and if the accession can be distributed to the users.

Type of test

When sufficient seed is available:

When the seed sample is small:

Number of seeds and replicates

Or

Pre-treatment

Follow the recommendations of the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009):

viability_test

chickpea_germinating_seeds

Germinated chickpea seeds using the between paper test (photos: ICRISAT)

To avoid seed damage resulting from rapid moistening by liquid water in germination substrate, and to improve germination:

Media

Following the recommendations of the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009):

Temperature

According to the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009) and the ISTA Standards:

Light

According to the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009):

Duration of test

According to the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009) and the ISTA Standards:

Interpretation of results

According to the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009) and the ISTA Standards (2003, 2005), Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA) Standards (2005):

Monitoring intervals

According to the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009):

For the active collection (4ºC and 20-30% RH)

For the base collection (-20ºC)

Other option

According to Ellis’ and Robert’s predictive model with log parameters for initial viability, seed storage temperature and moisture content were used to monitor viability. This was more efficient than routine calendar interval monitoring of viability of collections such as every 5–10 years:

Using peatmoth for germination test of Chickpea

Germinated chickpea seeds (photos: ICARDA)

Recording information during viability testing

The following information must be recorded for each testing step:

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Routine monitoring

Describes the recommended monitoring methods to assure minimum viability and quantity of seeds in storage.

Monitoring frequency

Recommends the minimum quantity and minimum viability of seeds below which they need to be regenerated.

Critical quantity

To be detected by data on stocks in the Genebank Information Management System (GIMS) (according to FAO/IPGRI standards, 1994; ISTA Standards).

Critical germination level

To be detected by data on stocks in the Genebank Information Management System (GIMS) (according to FAO/IPGRI standards, 1994; ISTA Standards).

Recording information during storage monitoring

The following information should be recorded for each step:

References and further reading

AOSA (Association of Official Seed Analysts). 2005. In: Rules for Testing Seeds (Capashew Ed.), 4-0, 4-11. Las Cruces, NM. pp.113.

Bratislava. 1999. Methodics examinations seed and plant, of State variety trials. Slovak Republic.

GIMS (Genebank Information Management System) – a standalone facility of ICRISAT Genebank. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, A.P. 502 324, India. In: Manual of Genebank Operations and Procedures – Technical Manual no. 6. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: ISBN 92-9066-421-5.

FAO/IPGRI. 1994. Genebank standards. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic.

FAO/IPGRI. 2001. Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors. FAO and IPGRI, Rome, Italy. Available in English, French and Spanish.

ISTA. 1993. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association. Bassersdorf, Switzerland. Seed Science and Technology 21 (Supplement):1-288.

ISTA. 2003. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association. Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

ISTA. 2005. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association. Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

Rao NK, Hanson J, Dulloo ME, Ghosh K, Nowel D, Larinde M. 2006. Manual of seed handling in genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy. Available in English (1.5 MB), Spanish (1.4 MB) and French (1.9 MB).

Upadhyaya HD, Laxmipathi Gowda CL. 2009. Managing and Enhancing the Use of Germplasm – Strategies and Methodologies. Technical Manual no. 10. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 236 pp.

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The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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