Safety duplication of cultivated chickpea and wild relative genetic resources

Contributors to this page: ICRISAT, Patancheru, India (Hari D Upadhyaya, Shivali Sharma, Cholenahalli L Laxmipathi Gowda, Dintyala Sastry, Sube Singh); NBPGR, New Delhi, India (Shyam Sharma); ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria (Ahmed Amri, Kenneth Street, Natalya Rukhkyan), SARC-RIPP, Piestany, Slovak Republic (Gabriela Antalikova); Institute of Plant Genetic Resources ‘K.Malkov’, Sadovo, Bulgaria (Siyka Stoyanova); Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia (Bob Redden); IPK, Gatersleben, Germany (Andreas Börner).

When should it be used

See also the general page on safety duplication procedures.


Samples for safety duplication (photo: ICRISAT)

Sample specifications

Following procedures in the Genebank Manual of ICRISAT (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009).

Minimum sample size for storage

Viability for storage

Moisture content

Container specifications

To ensure seed viability in the genebank and en route to the users.

Specifications of packaging material

Follow procedures of the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009) and FAO/IPGRI standards.

Seed packaging method

Follow procedures of the ICRISAT Genebank Manual (Upadhyaya and Laxmipathi, 2009).

Storage specifications

Assigning location codes in boxes


Chickpea samples at the svalbard seed vault (photo: ICRISAT)

Storage conditions

Shipping method

Should be safe, less costly and fast enough to avoid delays and deterioration of seed quality during transfer.

Legal arrangements

The Centre, host country and importing centre and country policies and practices for germplasm movement for black-box storage, must be fulfilled:

See also the link to the safety duplication strategies on this site, for more details.

Recording information during safety duplication

For large genebanks with active, base and safe duplication strategies, the following alternative is recommended (ICARDA Model):

References and further reading

FAO/IPGRI. 1994. Genebank standards. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic.

Nordgen. 2008. Agreement between (depositor) and the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food concerning the deposit of seeds in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. [online] The Svalbard Gloal Seed Vault, The Nordic Genetic Resource Centre, ALNARP. Available from:

Upadhyaya HD, Laxmipathi Gowda CL. 2009. Managing and Enhancing the Use of Germplasm – Strategies and Methodologies. Technical Manual no. 10. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 236 pp.

The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.