Regeneration of radish genetic resources

Contributors to this page: CAAS, China (Qiu Yang, Li Xixiang); Bioversity International, Italy (Imke Thormann, Ehsan Dulloo); CGN, Netherlands (Noortje Bas); IPK, Germany (Andreas Börner, Ulrike Lohwasser); AVRDC, Taiwan (Andreas Ebert); USDA, USA (Larry Robertson); NBPGR, India (Chitra Pandey); SASA, UK (George Campbell); University of Warwick, UK (Charlotte Allender).

Before reading the regeneration details for this crop, read the introduction that gives general guidelines to follow by clicking here.


Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cross-pollinated, cool-season and annual or biennial vegetable crop. Some cultivars, especially those developed for spring production and of tropical origin have an annual habit. In the first development year biennials develop a fleshy root.and require vernalization to bolt and flower in the second year. Radishes have numerous varieties, varying in size, color and duration of required cultivation time. The period of cold treatment needed to bolt and flower is different among varieties. Temperatures above 32 °C may not only have a negative effect on seed set as the stigma dries out and the pollen may not germinate but also on seed size and percentage of seed germination as the development of the embryo and endosperm will be negatively affected.

Choice of environment and planting season

Climatic conditions

Preparation for regeneration

When to regenerate


Field selection and preparation

Method of regeneration

Methods used

Radish is regenerated using two methods, seed to seed or root to seed.

Planting layout, density and distance

Artificial pollination


Crop management



Common pests and diseases

Contact plant health experts to identify the symptoms of the likely pests and diseases and the appropriate control measures.
The following are common pests and diseases for radish:






Pest and disease control




Post-harvest management

Monitoring accession identity

Comparisons with previous passport or morphological data

Documentation of information during regeneration

The following information should be collected during regeneration:

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References and further reading

Ara N, Ali MO, Ali MM, Basher MK. 1999. Effects of spacing and fertilizer levels on yield and quality of radish seed. Bangladesh journal of scientific and industrial research. 4(2): 73-178.

Breese EL. 1989. Regeneration and multiplication of germplasm resources in seed genebanks: The scientific background. Html version available from: Date accessed: 9 June 2010.

Engels JMM, Visser L, editors. 2003. A guide to effective management of germplasm collections. IPGRI Handbooks for Genebanks No. 6. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. Available here.

FAO/IPGRI. 1994. Genebank standards. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic .

FAO/IPGRI. 2001. Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors. FAO and IPGRI, Rome, Italy. Available in English, French and Spanish.

George RAT. 2009. Vegetable seed production. 3rd edition. CABI, UK.

IBPGR. 1990. Descriptors for Brassica and Raphanus. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy. Published in association with the Commission of the European Communities. ISBN 92-9043-184-9. Available here (1.5 MB).

ISTA. 2008. International Rules for Seed Testing. Edition 2008. International Seed Testing Association, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

Kalb T, Sukprakarn S, Juntakool S and Huang Rk. 2006. Saving Seeds of Radish:Saving your own vegetable seeds—a guide for farmers. Publication No. 06-668. The World Vegetable Center; Taiwan

Lovato A, Montanari M, Miggiano A. 1994. Nitrogen fertilization of seed radish (Raphanus sativus L.): effects on yield and N-content in seed, plant and soil. International Symposium on Agrotechnics and Storage of Vegetable and Ornamental Seeds. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 362. ISSN: 0567-7572, Bari, Italy.

Navazio J. Principles and practices of organic radish seed production in the Pacific Northwest. Organic Seed Alliance. Supporting the ethical development and stewardship of seed PO Box 772, Port Townsend, WA 98368.

Peterson C. 1999. Radishes: Easy to sprout, hard to grow right. [online]. The New York Times, May 2, 1999. Available from: Date accessed: 9 June 2010.

Radish [online]. Available from Date accessed: 9 June 2010.

Tzay Fa Sheen. 1981. Vernalization and flower development in seed vernalization type of radish. Studies on seed production and vernalization of Cruciferous crops in the tropics. Journal of agricultural research of China 30(4):38-47

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The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.