Contributors to this page: CAAS, China (Qiu Yang, Li Xixiang); Bioversity International, Italy (Imke Thormann, Ehsan Dulloo); CGN, Netherlands (Noortje Bas); IPK, Germany (Andreas Börner, Ulrike Lohwasser); AVRDC, Taiwan (Andreas Ebert); USDA, USA (Larry Robertson); NBPGR, India (Chitra Pandey); SASA, UK (George Campbell); University of Warwick, UK (Charlotte Allender).
When should it be used
- Always. See also the general page on safety duplication procedures.
- Integrating the accessions into the other genebank collections is preferred over the black box safety duplicates.
- In case of integration of safety duplicates, the recipient genebank will need to register the accessions.
- Black box safety duplicates should ensure both seed viability and seed quality.
Minimum sample size for storage
- The minimum samples size for storage should include sufficient seed for 2 regeneration cycles. Examles for samples sizes in genebanks:
- AVRDC: 2 x 200 seeds each duplicated at an active genebank and at SGSV, Norway.
- CAAS: 60g
- CGN: 600 seeds, considered sufficient for 2 regenerations.
- IPK: 10-15 g (1000-2500 seeds) each of cultivated material and 8-12 g (1000-2000 seeds each of wild material to comprise a quantity for two regeneration cycles of 300-400 seeds per cycle).
- SASA: 10% of active sample. This is considered a representative and consistent proportion of the overall sample and will not compromise the active sample in the way that a fixed size could.
- USDA: 2000 seeds. Based on radish being cross-pollinated crop and the need to maintain maximum number of genes, this provides for 10 standard field regeneration attempts.
- WARGRU: 10g
Viability for storage
- Not less than 80-85% viability for cultivated radish .
- A minimum of 60% viability for the wild relatives.
- At 3-7% (according to FAO/IPGRI standards).
Seed packaging method
- Aluminum foil packets sealed hermetically under light vacuum conditions with a heat sealer. Vacuum should be used with caution as it can damage seeds.
- Packing is best carried out in an air-conditioned room with controlled humidity as quick as possible after drying.
Specifications of packaging material
- Three layered standard aluminum foil packets consisting of the following layers:
- Polyester 17g/m2 (12 μm) (outer)
- Alufoil 33g/m2 (12 μm) (middle)
- Polyethylene 63g/m2 (80 μm) (inner)
Assigning location codes
- Boxes are numbered and lists of seeds per box maintained in a database.
- Use a barcode system.
- -18 ± 3°C.
- Should be safe and fast enough to avoid delays and deterioration of seed quality during transfer.
The documentation listed below should be included to facilitate custom clearance:
- GMO declaration (if issued).
- Standard agreement for safety duplication.
- Special agreement for Svalbard.
- Phytosanitary certificate.
- Certificate of origin.
- Certificate of no-commercial value.
- Electronic and/or hard copy of associated passport information.
Recording information during safety duplication
The following information should be recorded for each step:
- Accession number (unique number).
- Flag of safety duplicated (Y/N).
- Number of seeds.
- Weight of seeds.
- Year of production of seeds.
- Year of safety duplication.
- Name of institute holding the safety duplicates.
- Box label where the sample is placed.
- Common steps (regardless of conservation strategy).
References and further reading
Engels JMM, Visser L, editors. 2003. A guide to effective management of germplasm collections. IPGRI Handbooks for Genebanks No. 6. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. Available here.
FAO/IPGRI. 1994. Genebank standards. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic .
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