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Viruses - Cowpea

Contributors to this section: IITA, Nigeria (M. Ayodele, L. Kumar).

Contents:
Cowpea mosaic
Blackeye cowpea mosaic
Cowpea severe mosaic
Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic
Cowpea mottle
Cowpea golden mosaic
Cowpea yellow mosaic

Cowpea mosaic

Scientific name

Cowpea mosaic virus (CpMV) (genus Comovirus)

Other scientific name

Cowpea mosaic comovirus

Importance

High

Significance

Not reported.

Symptoms

Not reported.

Hosts

Reported hosts are Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max , (soyabean)Vigna umbellata , (Rice- bean)

Geographic distribution

India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Togo

Biology and transmission

Not reported.

Detection/indexing methods used at IITA

Treatment/control

Strategies for treatment are directed towards prevention of virus infection which are:

Procedures in case of positive test

References and further reading

Naidu RA, d’Hughes J. 2001, Methods for the detection of plant viruses. In Proceedings of the Plant Virology in Sub- Saharan Africa. Conference organized by IITA, 4-6 June 2001.

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Blackeye cowpea mosaic

Scientific name

Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) (genus Potyvirus)

Other scientific name

Bean common mosaic virus strain blackeye cowpea

Importance

High

Significance

Yield reduction from expected 2500kg/ha to 50kg/ha was reported in fields infected with BlCMV in India (Puttaraju et al. (2000)

Cowpea varieties inoculated with BlCMV at the primary leaf stage showed 92-100% infection at first trifoliate leaf.

Iizuka (1990) reported that in field trials, the virus reduced yield of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) by 33%.

Symptoms

Growth stages and plant parts affected by the virus are seedling, and vegetative stages, the leaves and the whole plant.

Leaves: discoloration, mosaic, mottling, vein banding, vein chlorosis, vein yellowing, leaf deformation and yellow spots.

Seeds : shrivelling

Whole plant: severe green and yellow mosaic, vein banding, mottle, blistering, leaf roll and growth reduction

Presence of virus in the cotyledons, and embryo axes in mature cowpea seeds was reported by Provvidenti, 1986). Sekar and Sulochana (1988)

The spread of BICMV in the fields is effected by aphids after initial seed transmission from infected seeds planted.

Hosts

Reported major hosts areVigna unguiculata ,, Arachis hypogaea ,, Glycine max , Vigna angularis , Vigna mungo , Vigna radiata , , Voandzeia subterranea , (bambara groundnut)(mung bean)(black gram)(adzuki bean)(soyabean)(groundnut)(cowpea) Desmodium incanum, D. tortuosum and Sphenostylis stenocarpa have also been reported as natural hosts. Taiwo et al ( 1982), Brunt et al. (1990), Zhao et al. (1991b), Fery and Dukes (1992).

Geographic distribution

Cosmopolitan.

Biology and transmission

The virus is vector transmitted, mostly by aphids in a non-persistent manner. From experimental results some aphid species have been found to be vectors of the virus such as Aphis craccivora (Bashir and Hampton, 1994, Aphis gossypii ( Mali et al., 1988)
Macrosiphum euphorbiae Murphy et al., 1987), and Myzus persicae (../Jesse Consult Mexico Nov/RefPtr=3N4ceb); Mali et al., 1988].
The virus is seed borne and seed transmitted   (Tsuchizaki et al., 1986). Dijkstra et al., 1987

Seedborne infection of the virus has been detected with incidences as high as 50% in cowpea seed by Zettler and Evans, 1972; and Gillaspie et al., 1993.

Detection/indexing methods

Treatment/control

Strategies for treatment are directed towards prevention of virus infection which are:

Procedures in case of positive test at IITA

References and further reading

Bashir M, Hampton RO. 1994. Seed and aphid transmission of some isolates of blackeye cowpea and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyviruses. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6(2):140-146.

Brunt A, Crabtree K, Gibbs A. 1990. Viruses of Tropical Plants. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Dijkstra J, Bos L, Bouwmeester HJ, Hadiastono T, Lohuis H. 1987. Identification of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus from germplasm of yard-long bean and from soybean, and the relationships between blackeye cowpea mosaic virus and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(3):115-133.

Fery RL, Dukes PD. 1992. ‘Carolina Crowder’ southernpea. HortScience, 27(12):1335-1337.

Gillaspie AGJr, Hopkins MS, Pinnow DL. 1993. Relationship of cowpea seed-part infection and seed transmission of blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus in cowpea. Plant Disease, 77(9):875-877

Iizuka N. 1990. Studies on virus diseases of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis Wight) in Japan. Bulletin of the Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 82:77-113

Mali VR, Mundhe GE, Patil NS, Kulthe KS. 1988. Detection and identification of blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphid borne mosaic viruses in India. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 6(2):159-173.

Murphy JF, Barnett OW, Witcher W. 1987. Characterization of a blackeye cowpea mosaic virus strain from South Carolina. Plant Disease, 71(3):243-248.

Provvidenti R. 1986. Seed transmission of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in Vigna mungo. Plant Disease, 70(10):981

Puttaraju HR, Prakash HS, Shetty HS. 2000. Field incidence, seed-transmission and susceptibility of cowpea varieties with reference to Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Potyvirus. Seed Research, 28(2):196-202

Sekar R, Sulochana CB. 1988. Seed transmission of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in two cowpea varieties. Current Science, 57(1):37-38

Taiwo MA, Gonsalves D, Provvidenti R, Thurston HD. 1982. Partial characterization and grouping of isolates of blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphidborne mosaic viruses. Phytopathology, 72(6):590-596.

Tsuchizaki T, Senboku T, Iwaki M, Kiratiya-Angul S, Srithongchai W, Deema N, Ong CA. 1986. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus from asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) in Thailand and Malaysia. Technical Bulletin of the Tropical Agriculture Research Center, No.21:213-218.

Zettler FW, Evans IR. 1972. Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in Florida: host range and incidence in certified cowpea seed. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 85:99-101.

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Cowpea severe mosaic

Scientific name

Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV) (genus Comovirus)

Other scientific names

Cowpea severe mosaic comovirus, Puerto Rico cowpea mosaic virus

Importance

High

Significance

Yield losses of 60-80% caused by CSMV were reported in Brazil

Symptoms

Not reported.

Cowpea severe mosaic virus (photo: IITA)

Hosts

The major hosts of this virus are Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) Canavalia ensiformis (gotani bean), Crotalaria juncea (sunn hemp), Glycine max (soyabean), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean), Vigna radiata (mung bean).

Geographic distribution

Widespread in North , South and Central America, Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, Pakistan, Senegal, Nigeria.

Biology and transmission

Seed borne, sap and insect transmitted mostly beetles such as Cerotoma sp.

Detection/indexing methods at IITA

Treatment/control

Procedures in case of positive test at IITA

All lines testing positive are discarded after different confirmatory diagnostic tests have been conducted

For import

For export

References and further reading

Alconero R, Santiago. (1973). Phytopathology 63, 120-123

Diaz A. (1974). Phytopathology 64, 767.

Lima JAA, Nelson MR. (1977). Pl. Dis. Reptr. 61, 864-867

Shepherd RJ. (1964). Phytopathology 54, 466-473

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Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic

Scientific name

Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV, CABMV) (genus Potyvirus)

Other scientific names

Cowpea Moroccan aphid-borne mosaic virus (Fischer & Lockhart, 1976)

Importance

High

Significance

Complete loss of a cowpea crop in northern Nigeria resulting from CABMV attack under irrigated field conditions was reported by Raheja and Leleji (1974). A yield loss of 13-87% due to natural infection of cowpea by CABMV was reported in Iran by Kaiser and Mossahebi, ( 1975). While Kannaiyan and Haciwa, (1993) reported a loss 48-60% in Zambia).

Symptoms

All the plant stages and parts are affected:  flowering , fruiting, seedling and vegetative stages in addition to the pods, growing points, inflorescence, leaves, seeds, stems and whole plant.Symptoms vary according to the cowpea cultivar and the existing CABMV race. Shoyinka et al., (1997) reported that CABMV symptoms observed on cowpea under field conditions were extremely variable.

Symptoms expressed on the different parts are:

Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (photo: IITA)

Hosts

Although cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ) is the main host of this virus other major hosts include, Sesamum indicum (sesame ),Voandzeia subterranea . While (bambara groundnut)Glycine max , (soyabean)Pachyrhizus erosus , (yam bean)Pisum sativum , (pea)Vigna radiata are reported as minor hosts.(mung bean)

Glycine max, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Lablab purpureus, Vigna subterranea and Lens culinaris were reported as symptomless carriers by Mazyad et al.,( 1981)

 Edwardson and Christie (1986) reported that CABMV infected 53 species in 28 genera of the Leguminosae. The virus is also said to infect 13 other families among which are Amaranthaceae, Aizcaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Labiatae, Iridaceae, Leguminosae, Scrophulariaceae, Polygonaceae, Solanaceae and Pedaliaceae. Isolates from the different parts of the world have different hosts range (Bock, 1973).

Geographic distribution

 The virus is worlwide in distribution. It is considered to be a major and widespread disease of cowpea through out sub-Saharan Africa (Bock, 1973; Ladipo, 1976; Thottappilly and Rossel, 1985; Burke et al., 1986

The virus has also been reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, Brazil, USA, Australia and Papua New Guinea

Biology and transmission

CABMV is seed borne and seed transmitted, (Allen, 1983; Rossel and Thottappilly, 1990). The virus survives in infected seed, volunteer host plants and in viruliferous aphids. Thottappilly, (1992)

The virus is transmitted mechanically ( sap), and vector transmitted by several aphid species in a stylet-borne non-persistent manner, and Aphis craccivora is the most efficient vector (Bock, 1973;Atiri et al., 1984, 1986). The aphid species reported to be vectors of CABMV in addition to   Aphis craccivora, are A. gossypii, A. spiraecola, A. medicaginis, A. fabae, A. citricola, A. sesbaniae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicae, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Cerataphis palmae and Acyrthosiphon Dijkstra et al., 1987; Mali et al., 1988;  Thottapilly, 1992; Thottapilly and Rossel, 1992; Roberts et al., 1993; Bashir and Hampton, 1994).

Detection/indexing methods at IITA

Treatment/control

Procedures in case of positive test at IITA

All lines testing positive are discarded after different confirmatory diagnostic tests have been conducted.

For Import:

For export:

References and further reading

Allen DJ. 1983. Disease resistance in crop improvement. In: The Pathology of Tropical Food Legumes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, 210-213.

Atiri GI, Ekpo EJA, Thottappilly G. 1984. The effect of aphid-resistance in cowpea on infestation and development of Aphis craccivora and the transmission of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 104(2):339-346.

Atiri GI, Enobackhare DA, Thottappilly G. 1986. The importance of colonizing and non-colonizing aphid vectors in the spread of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in cowpea. Crop Protection, 5(6):406-410

Bashir M. 1992. Serological and biological characterization of seed-borne isolates of blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyviruses in Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. PhD Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Bashir M, Hampton RO. 1994. Seed and aphid transmission of some isolates of blackeye cowpea and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyviruses. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6(2):140-146

Bock KR. 1973. East African strains of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 74(1):75-83;

Burke DW, Ditshipi P, DeMooy CJ. 1986. Virus diseases of cowpeas in dryland and irrigated plots in Botswana. Plant Disease, 70(8):801

Dijkstra J, Bos L, Bouwmeester HJ, Hadiastono T, Lohuis H. 1987. Identification of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus from germplasm of yard-long bean and from soybean, and the relationships between blackeye cowpea mosaic virus and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(3):115-133

Edwardson JR, Christie RG. 1986. Viruses infecting forage legumes. Vol. II. Monograph No. 14. Agriculture Experimental Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Kaiser WJ, Mossahebi GH. 1975. Studies with cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and its effect on cowpea in Iran. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 23(2):33-39

Kannaiyan J. Haciwa HC. 1993. Diseases of food legume crops for the scope of their management in Zambia. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 41:73-90.

Ladipo JL. 1976. A vein-banding strain of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Science, 10:77-86.

Mali VR, Mundhe GE, Patil NS, Kulthe KS. 1988. Detection and identification of blackeye cowpea mosaic and cowpea aphid borne mosaic viruses in India. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 6(2):159-173

Mazyad HM, El-Hammady M, El-Amrety AA, El-Din ASG. 1981. Studies in cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in Egypt. Agricultural Research Review, 59(2):167-178

Phatak HC. 1974. Seed-borne plant viruses – Identification and diagnosis in seed health testing. Seed Science and Technology, 2:3-155.

Raheja AK, Leleji OI. 1974. An aphid-borne virus disease of irrigated cowpea in Northern Nigeria. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(12):1080-1084

Roberts JMF, Thottappilly G, Hodgson CJ. 1993. The ability of Aphis craccivora, A. gossypii and A. citricola to transmit single and mixed viruses to cowpeas. Journal of Phytopathology, 138(2):164-170

Rossel HW, Thottappilly G. 1990. Possible dependence of geographical distribution of virus diseases of cowpea in African agroecological parameters. In: Allen DJ, ed. Proceedings of Working Group Meeting on Virus Diseases of Beans and Cowpeas in Africa. CIAT Africa Workshop Series No. 13. Cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, 33-37.

Shoyinka SA, Thottappilly G, Adebayo GG, Anno-Nyako FO. 1997. Survey on cowpea virus incidence and distribution in Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 43(2):127-132

Thottappilly G, Rossel HW. 1985. Worldwide occurrence and distribution of virus diseases, In: Singh SR., Rachie RO, eds. Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, 155-171.

Thottappilly G, Rossel HW. 1992. Virus diseases of cowpea in tropical Africa. Tropical Pest Management, 38(4):337-348

Tsuchizaki T, Yora K, Asuyama H. 1970. The viruses causing mosaic of cowpea and azuki bean, and their transmissibility through seeds. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 36:112-120.

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Cowpea mottle

Scientific name

Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) (genus Carmovirus)

Importance

High

Significance

The impact of infection on the yield of cowpea is not known but yield losses of 64-80% in groundnuts were reported in Kenya by Bock et al., 1976, 1977). Other unquantified yield losses, of groundnuts, soyabeans, bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea) and winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus ) have been reported by Fauquet et al., (1979); Fortuner et al., (1979); Dubern and Dollet, (1981); Thouvenel et al., (1982); Fauquet and Thouvenel, (1987); Saleh et al., (1989); and Reddy, (1991).

Symptoms

The virus affects all growing stages of the plant, flowering, podding, and seedling stages. The leaves and the whole plant are also infected.

Symptoms exhibited on cowpea are :

Leaves: mild to severe chlorotic mottling, distortion, stunting.

Whole plants: stunting.

Cowpea mottle virus (photos: IITA)

Hosts

Although the natural hosts of CPMV are leguminous species, the virus also occurs naturally in tomatoes in Israel and Nigeria.

The major hosts are: Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Arachis hypogaea (groundnut), Glycine max (soyabean), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean).

The minor recorded hosts are Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo (Australia)), Mucuna pruriens (Buffalobean), Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean), Phaseolus radiata, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean), Vicia faba (broad bean), Voandzeia subterranea (bambara groundnut) while Centrosema pubescens (Centro), Desmodium tortuosum (Florida beggarweed), Stylosanthes gracile , Tephrosia villosa are reported as wild hosts

Geographic distribution

The virus is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America.

Biology and transmission

Transmitted by whiteflies Bemisia tabaci,(Brunt, 1995), Thottappilly and Rossel, 1992). Seed borne and seed transmitted, (Brunt and Kenten, 1973), (Nain et al., 1994).

Detection/indexing methods at IITA

A combination of methods is used for detection and identification. The methods are based on biological properties of the virus.

Treatment/control

Procedures in case of positive test at IITA

All lines testing positive are discarded after different confirmatory diagnostic tests have been conducted.

For Import :

For export:

References and further reading

Bock KR, Guthrie EJ, Meredith G, Njuguna JGM. 1976. Plant pathology: Groundnut viruses. Report of the East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organisation for 1974. Nairobi, Kenya: East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organisation, 120-128.

Bock KR, Guthrie EJ, Meredith G, Njuguna JGM. 1977. Plant pathology. Report of the East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organisation for 1975. Nairobi, Kenya: East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organisation, 117-124.

Brunt AA. 1995. Genus Carlavirus. In: Murphy F, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, editors. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology, Supplement 10. Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 475-478.

Brunt AA, Kenten RH. 1973. Cowpea mild mottle, a newly recognized virus infecting cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Ghana. Annals of Applied Biology, 74(1):67-74;

Dubern J, Dollet M. 1981. Groundnut crinkle virus, a new member of the carlavirus group. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 101(4):337-347;

Fauquet C, Lamy D, Thouvenel J-C. 1979. Viral diseases of winged bean in the Ivory Coast. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 27:81-87.

Fauquet C, Thouvenel J-C. 1987. Plant viruses in the Ivory Coast. Initiations, Documentations, Techniques, No. 46. Paris, France:ORSTOM, 243

Fortuner R, Fauquet C, Lourd M. 1979. Diseases of the winged bean in Ivory Coast. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(3):194-199

Nain PS, Rishi N, Bishnoi SS. 1994. Profile of viral diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in northern India. Indian Journal of Virology, 10(2):128-136.

Reddy DVR. 1991. Crop profile. Groundnut viruses and virus diseases: distribution, identification and control. Review of Plant Pathology, 70(9):665-678.

Saleh N, Baliadi Y, Horn NM. 1989. Cowpea mild mottle virus naturally infecting groundnut in Indonesia. Penelitian Palawija, 4:32-35.

Thottappilly G, Rossel HW. 1992. Virus diseases of cowpea in tropical Africa. Tropical Pest Management, 38(4):337-348.

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Cowpea golden mosaic

Scientific name

Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CGMV) (genus Bigeminivirus)

Importance

High

Significance

Unquantified severe losses reported in Nigeria.

Symptoms

Symptoms are exhibited on the leaves and on the whole plant.

Leaves: yellowing, chlorosis, distortion, blistering, blotches

Whole plant: stunting.

Cowpea golden mosaic virus (photos: IITA)

Hosts

Cowpea.

Geographic distribution

Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, Pakistan

Biology and transmission

The virus is transmitted by whiteflies Bemisia specie

Detection/indexing methods used at IITA

A combination of methods is used for detection and identification. The methods are based on biological properties of the virus.

Treatment/control

Control of whiteflies (Bemisia specie ) using any of the underlisted pesticides as sprays on the field during active growth:

Chemical control

Protocol

Procedures in case of positive test

All lines testing positive are discarded after different confirmatory diagnostic tests have been conducted.

For import:

For export:

References and further reading

IITA. 1977. Highlights of 1976 Research, International Research Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, 57 pp

Mushtaq Ahmad. 1978. Pl. Dis. Reptr. 62, 224-226

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Cowpea yellow mosaic

Scientific name

Cowpea yellow mosaic virus (CYMV)

Other scientific name

Cowpea mosaic comovirus

Importance

High

Significance

Yield losses of 80-100% were reported by Singh and Allen

Symptoms

Symptoms differ with different cultivars

Leaf: mosaic, distortion, blistering

Whole plant: systemic infection, green mottling, stunting, dead

Cowpea yellow mosaic virus (photo: IITA)

Hosts

The hosts include: Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), Crotalaria juncea (sunn hemp), Glycine max (soyabean), Vigna umbellata (Rice- bean).

Geographic distribution

India, Pakistan, Africa ( Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria, Togo), Surinam

Biology and transmission

Virus is seed borne and seed transmitted.

Sap transmitted

Vector transmitted by beetles Ootheca mutabilis including other species, grasshoppers, and thrips have been reported as vectors of the virus

Detection/indexing methods at IITA

A combination of methods is used for detection and identification. The methods are based on biological properties of the virus.

Treatment/control

Control of beetles Ootheca mutabilis and the other vectors using any of the underlisted pesticides as sprays on the field during active growth:

Chemical control

Protocol

Procedures in case of positive test

All lines testing positive are discarded after different confirmatory diagnostic tests have been conducted

For Import:

For export:

References

Bock KR. 1971. E. Afri. Agric. For. J. 37, 60-62

Witney WK, Gilmer RM. 1974. Ann. Appl. Biol.77, 17-21

Williams RJ. 1977. Trop.Agric. (Trin.). 54, 61-68

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The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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