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Viruses - Forage Grass

Contributors to this page are: CIAT, Colombia (Maritza Cuervo, Cesar Medina, Jose Luis Ramirez, Socorro Balcazar, Josefina Martinez, Daniel Debouck); ILRI, Ethiopia (Jean Hanson, Janice Proud, Juvy Cantrell).

Contents:
Digitaria Striate Virus
Elephant Grass Mosaic Virus
Guineagrass Mosaic Virus
Johnsongrass Mosaic Virus
Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus
Maize Streak Virus
Sugarcane Mosaic Virus

Digitaria Striate Virus

Scientific name

Digitaria striate mosaic virus (DiSMV or DSMV)

Significance

Minor significance for quarantine because widespread. It can affect several important forage grasses, maize and wheat.

Symptoms

Chlorotic striations and stripes

Narrow white streaks or local lesions, usually 1-3 mm long; longer wider chlorotic often yellow local lesions with diffuse margin; narrow, short, white or chlorotic streaks or local lesions with some showing diffuse edges, but most local lesions clearly defined; chlorotic streaks and local lesions, severe deformation of pant.

Hosts

Avena sativa, Brachiaria subquadripara (syn. B. miliiformis), Chloris gayana, Digitaria decumbens (D. eriantha), Digitaria ciliaris, Digitaria sanguinalis, Digitaria setigera, Dinebra retroflexa, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Hordeum vulgare, Lolium multiflorum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays

Geographic distribution

Worldwide

Queensland (Australia), India (Maharashtra State)

Biology and transmission

Transmitted in nature by the planthopper Sogatella kalophon but not by seeds or mechanical means.
Vetor specificity and host preference should limit the spread of DSV.

Detection/indexing method

Treatment/control

Procedure followed  at the centers in case of positive test

References and further reading

Alan B, Crabtree K, Dallwitz M, Gibbs A, Watson L. (eds.) 1996. Viruses of Plants. Description and Lists from the VIDE Database. CAB International, UK. 1484 pp.

Gad L, Thottappilly G. (eds.) 2003. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Major Crops in Developing Countries. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 800 pp.

Seed Health General Publication by the Center or CGIAR

Diekmann M, Putter CAJ. (eds.) 1995. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No. 14. Small Grain Temperate Cereals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Miles JW, Maass BL, do Valle CB; with the collaboration of V. Kumble. (eds.) 1996. Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement. Cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Tropical Forages Program and Communications Unit; Campo Grande, Brazil, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro National de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, 1996. 288 p. CIAT Publication; no. 259

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Elephant Grass Mosaic Virus

Scientific name

Elephant grass mosaic virus (EGMV)

Significance

Although EGMV has been found only in elephant grass, experimental transmission to corn and sorghum indicates that the virus maybe of economic importance.

Symptoms

Mosaic in leaves; chlorotic spots and streaks

Hosts

Andropogon schoenanthus, Avena sativa, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Gomphrena, globosa, Hordeum vulgare, Oryza sativa, Panicum compressum, P. maximum, Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Secale cereale, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays

Geographic distribution

East Africa, Brazil

Biology and transmission

A virus isolated from leaves of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum). It was mechanically transmitted to a few cultivars of Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor, but other test plants including elephant grass could not be infected.

It was not transmitted by Myzus persicae Sulz. and Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch.

Detection/indexing method

Treatment/control

Procedure followed at the centers in case of positive test

References and further reading

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3793303

http://www.apsnet.org/pd/PDFS/1993/PlantDisease77n07_726.PDF/

Diekmann M, Putter CAJ. (eds.) 1995. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No. 14. Small Grain Temperate Cereals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Marins CRF, Kitajima EW. 1993. A unique virus isolated from elephant grass. Plant Disease. 77(7): 726-729.

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Guineagrass Mosaic Virus

Scientific name

Guineagrass mosaic virus (GMV)

Significance

Causes reduced yields in grasses in tropical areas and not seed borne but can affect maize.

Symptoms

Systematically infected plants show characteristic rhomboid or eye-shaped lesions on infected leaves. As the disease progresses, various mosaic patterns and chlorotic patches develop, causing early leaf senescence. As long as infected plants are maintained under favorable conditions, the disease does not cause significant damage.

Light-green or yellow mosaic

Hosts

Avena sativa, Brachiaria decumbens, B. deflexa, B. dictyoneura, B. humidicola, B. jubata, B. ruziziensis, Dactylis glomerata, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa crus-gali, Eleusine coracana, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum maximum, P. capillare, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum bicolor, S. sudanense, Zea mays

Geographic distribution

East Africa, West Africa, South America

Côte d’Ivoire, Brazil, Colombia

Biology and transmission

This virus is related to Johnson grass mosaic virus

Transmitted by aphids and through mechanical inoculation

Detection/indexing method

Treatment/control

Procedure followed at the centers in case of positive test

References and further reading

Alan B, Crabtree K, Dallwitz M, Gibbs A, Watson L. (eds.) 1996. Virus of Plants. Description and List from the VIDE Database. CAB International, UK. 1484 pp.

Gad L, Thottappilly G. (eds.) 2003. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Major Crops in Developing Countries. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecct. 800 pp.

Lenne JM, Trutmann P. (eds.) 1994. Diseases of Tropical Pasture Plants. CAB International, UK, Natural Resource Institute, UK & Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Colombia. 404 pp.

Olufemi WA, Mbiele Al, Nkouka N. (eds.) 1988. Virus Diseases of Plants in Africa. Organization of African Unity/Scientific, Technical & Research Commission (OAU/STRC), Technical Center for Agricultural & Rural Cooperation: Lagos Nigeria. 225 p.

Seed Health General Publication Published by the Center or CGIAR

Diekmann M, Putter CAJ. (eds.) 1995. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No. 14. Small Grain Temperate Cereals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Miles JW, Maass BL, do Valle CB; with the collaboration of V. Kumble. (eds.) 1996. Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement. Cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Tropical Forages Program and Communications Unit; Campo Grande, Brazil, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro National de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, 1996. 288 p. CIAT Publication; no. 259

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Johnsongrass Mosaic Virus

Scientific name

Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV)

Other scientific names

Maize dwarf mosaic virus — strain O (McDaniel and Gordon, 1985; Shukla et al., 1989),
Sugarcane mosaic virus — Australian Johnson grass virus (Shukla et al., 1987),
Maize dwarf mosaic virus — Kansas I strain (McKern et al., 1990).

Significance

Important disease of many forage grasses, sorghum and maize but of quarantine significance because currently not widely distributed.

Symptoms

Mosaic and variegation, ringspots and chlorosis, necrotic red stripe, necrotic red leaf; necrosis of new leaves, stunting; systemic chlorotic mosaic, mottling, necrosis, stunting

Mosaic, ring spots, stunting

Hosts

Brachiaria miliiformis, B. praetervisa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum miliaceum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum typhoides, Sorghum x almum, S. bicolor, S. haplense, S. laxiflorum, S. macrospermum, S. miliaceum, S. stipoideum, S. sudanense, S. verticilliflorum, S. vulgare, Zea mays

Geographic distribution

USA, Australia, East Africa

Biology and transmission

Transmission by aphids, sap and mechanical inoculation

Vascular puncture inoculation of seedlings

Detection/indexing method

Treatment/control

Procedure followed at the centers in case of positive test

References and further reading

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Diekmann M, Putter CAJ. (eds.) 1995. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No. 14. Small Grain Temperate Cereals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Miles JW, Maass BL, do Valle CB; with the collaboration of V. Kumble. (eds.) 1996. Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement. Cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Tropical Forages Program and Communications Unit; Campo Grande, Brazil, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro National de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, 1996. 288 p. CIAT Publication; no. 259

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Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus

Scientific name

Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV)

Other scientific names

MDMV-A, MDMV-D, MDMV-E, MDMV-F; Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum red stripe virus (SRSV).

Significance

Widespread, seed and vector transmitted and also affects maize and sorghum.

Symptoms

Uneven chlorotic stripes in leaves, occasional reddening; foliar faint streak, mottle, foliar ring-like flecks; distortion and necrosis of young leaves; poor filling of cobs, stunting

Mosaic and stunting

Hosts

Avena sativa, Brachiaria eruciformis, B. platyphylla, Chloris gayana, Cynodon dactylon, Dactylis glomerata, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa crus-gali, Eleusine coracana, Eragrostis trichodes, Hordeum vulgare, Lolium perenne, Melinis minutiflora, Panicum maximum, P. sumatrense, P. capillare, Paspalum dilatatum, Poa pratensis, Rottboellia cochinchinensis, Secale cereale, Setaria viridis, Sorghum arundinaceum, S. bicolor, S. haplense, Zea mays

Geographic distribution

Australia, China, South Africa, USA

Biology and transmission

Transmitted by aphids; seed-borne

In Africa Zea mays is grown in mid to high altitudes.

Did not affect oats, rice, wheat, soybeans and cowpeas.

Detection/indexing method

Treatment/control

Procedure followed at the centers in case of positive test

References and further reading

Alan B, Crabtree K, Dallwitz M, Gibbs A, Watson L. (eds.) 1996. Virus of Plants. Description and List from the VIDE Database. CAB International, UK. 1484 pp.

Diekmann M, Putter CAJ. (eds.) 1995. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No. 14. Small Grain Temperate Cereals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Gad L, Thottappilly G. (eds.) 2003. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Major Crops in Developing Countries. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecct. 800 pp.

Lenne JM, Trutmann P. (eds.) 1994. Diseases of Tropical Pasture Plants. CAB International, UK, Natural Resource Institute, UK & Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Colombia. 404 pp.

Miles JW, Maass BL, do Valle CB; with the collaboration of V. Kumble. (eds.) 1996. Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement. Cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Tropical Forages Program and Communications Unit; Campo Grande, Brazil, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro National de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, 1996. 288 p. CIAT Publication; no. 259

Olufemi WA, Mbiele AL, Nkouka N. (eds.) 1988. Virus Diseases of Plants in Africa. Organization of African Unity/Scientific, Technical & Research Commission (OAU/STRC), Technical Center for Agricultural & Rural Cooperation: Lagos Nigeria. 225 p.

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Maize Streak Virus

Scientific name

Maize streak virus (MSV)

Other scientific names

Bajra streak virus (Seth et al., 1972a & 1972b), Cereal African streak virus, Maize streak A virus

Significance

Causes severe streaking and yield loss in maize and other grasses.
Quarantine significance because not found in the Americas.

Symptoms

White chlorotic spots along veins of unfolding leaf; chlorotic streaking to uniform chlorosis; necrosis, local lesions, stunting; chlorotic or white streaking or lesions; systemic chlorotic streaking

Chlorotic streaking and various other foliar lesions.

Hosts

Agropyron cristatum, A. fragile, Agrostis gigantean, Andropogon gerardii, Arrhenatherum elatius, Avena sativa, Axonopus compressus, Bothriochloa barbinodis, Brachiara deflexa, B. lata, B. reptans, B.villosa (B. distichophylla), Bromus erectus, B. inermis, B. catharticus, Cenchrus ciliaris, Chloris gayana, Coix lacryma-jobi, Cymbopogon schoenanthus, Cynodon dactylon, Dactylis glomerata, Dactyloctenium gianteum, Digitaria abyssinica, Digitaria velutina, D. milanjiana, D. ternata, D. eriantha, D. horizontalis, D. sanguinalis, Echinochloa colona, E. crus-gali, E. polystachya, Eleusine coracana, E. indica, Eragrostis curvula, Fesuca ovina, F. pratensis, F. rubra, Heteropogon contortus, Holcus lanatus, Hordeum vulgare, Hyparrhenia rufa, Leersia hexandra, Lolium multiflorum, L. perenne, L. rigidum, Panicum coloratum, P. maximum, P. bergii, P. sumatrense, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, P. scorbiculatum, P. almum, P. urvillei, Pennisetum clandestinum, P. purpureum, P. glaucum, Phalaris aquatica, P. arundinacea, Phleum pretense, Poa pretense, Rottboellia cochinchinensis, Setaria sphacelata, S. pumila, S. verticillata, S. megaphylla, S. homonyma, S. viridis, Sorghum arundinaceum, S. bicolor, Tripsacum dactyloides, Urochloa panicoides, U. trichopus, Zea mays

Geographic distribution

Madagascar, East Africa, Yemen, Reunion, India

Biology and transmission

This virus is transmitted by insects belonging to Cicadelllidae (Cicadulina mbila, Cicadulina triangular, Cicadulina zeae, Cicadulina storeiy) in a persistent manner; transmissible to seedlings by vascular puncture inoculation (VPI), but not through seed or by mechanical means; non-sap transmissible.

Detection/indexing method

Treatment/control

Procedure followed at the centers in case of positive test

References and further reading

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Alan B, Crabtree K, Dallwitz M, Gibbs A, Watson L. (eds.) 1996. Virus of Plants. Description and List from the VIDE Database. CAB International, UK. 1484 pp.

Diekmann M, Putter CAJ. (eds.) 1995. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No. 14. Small Grain Temperate Cereals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Gad L, Thottappilly G. (eds.) 2003. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Major Crops in Developing Countries. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecct. 800 pp.

Lenne JM, Trutmann P. (eds.) 1994. Diseases of Tropical Pasture Plants. CAB International, UK, Natural Resource Institute, UK & Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Colombia. 404 pp.

Miles JW, Maass Bl, do Valle CB; with the collaboration of V. Kumble. (eds.) 1996. Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement. Cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Tropical Forages Program and Communications Unit; Campo Grande, Brazil, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro National de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, 1996. 288 p. CIAT Publication; no. 259

Olufemi WA, Mbiele AL, Nkouka N. (eds.) 1988. Virus Diseases of Plants in Africa. Organization of African Unity/Scientific, Technical & Research Commission (OAU/STRC), Technical Center for Agricultural & Rural Cooperation: Lagos Nigeria. 225 p.

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Sugarcane Mosaic Virus

Scientific name

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV)

Other scientific names

Grass mosaic virus, Maize dwarf mosaic virus MDMV-B MDMV-A, Sorghum red stripe virus (SRSV)

Significance

Worldwide spread and yield loss in some forages.

Symptoms

Foliar mottling; general mosaic to oblong chlorotic spots; oblong necrotic spots dispersed in leaves; necrotic local lesions, then systemic mosaic, necrosis

Mosaic in different variegated patterns, depending on the age of the plant and time of inoculation.

Hosts

Brachiaria eruciformis
Brachiaria
spp.

Geographic distribution

Worldwide

Australia, East Africa

Biology and transmission

Transmitted by aphids; spread through infected seeds, sap, vegetative propagules and by mechanical means

Transmissible to seedlings by vascular puncture inoculation (VPI)

Detection/indexing method

Treatment/control

Procedure followed at the centers in case of positive test

References and further reading

Alan B, Crabtree K, Dallwitz M, Gibbs A, Watson L. (eds.) 1996. Virus of Plants. Description and List from the VIDE Database. CAB International, UK. 1484 pp.

Frison EA, Putter CAJ. (eds.). 1993. FAO/IBPGR Technical Guidelines for theSafe Movement of Sugarcane Germplasm. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/ International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome.

Gad L, Thottappilly G. (eds.) 2003. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Major Crops in Developing Countries. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecct. 800 pp.

Lenne JM, Trutmann P. (eds.) 1994. Diseases of Tropical Pasture Plants. CAB International, UK, Natural Resource Institute, UK & Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Colombia. 404 pp.

Miles JW, Maass BL, do Valle CB; with the collaboration of V. Kumble. (eds.) 1996. Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement. Cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Tropical Forages Program and Communications Unit; Campo Grande, Brazil, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro National de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, 1996. 288 p. CIAT Publication; no. 259

Olufemi WA, Mbiele AL, Nkouka N. (eds.) 1988. Virus Diseases of Plants in Africa. Organization of African Unity/Scientific, Technical & Research Commission (OAU/STRC), Technical Center for Agricultural & Rural Cooperation: Lagos Nigeria. 225 p.

Sukumar C, Leath KT, Skipp RS, Pederson GA, Bray RA, Latch GCM, Jr Nutter FW. (eds.) Pasture and Forage Crop Pathology. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Crop Science Society of America, Inc., Soil Science Society of America, Inc. 653 pp.

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The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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