Forage Legumes References

Publications on Forage legumes

Akinola JO, Afolayan RA, Olorunju SAS. 1991. Effects of storage, testa colour and scarification method on seed germination of Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC. Seed Science and Technology 19:159-166.

Albrechtsen SE. 2006. Testing Methods for Seed-Transmitted Viruses: Principles and Protocols. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, USA. pp. 268.

Asmussen CB. 1993. Pollination biology of the Sea Pea, Lathyrus japonicus: floral characters and activity and flight patterns of bumblebees. Flora 188:227-237.

Bass LN. 1984. Storage of seeds of tropical legumes. Seed Science and Technology 12:395-402.

Bogdan AV. 1977. Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants, Longman, London, UK.

Cabrales R, Bernal J. 1983. Effect of different systems of seed treatment, packing, and storage on vigor and germination of five tropical forage legumes. XIVth International Grasslands Congress. pp. 263-265.

Chekalin NM, Samorodov VN. 1975. Rate of growth of pollen tubes in mutant self pollinating lines of Lathyrus sativus. Sel Semenovod Kiev 29:94-97.

Chekalin NM, Zelenskaia LA. 1973. Inheritance of male sterility in Lathyrus sativus with crossing of sterile plants with fertile pollenizer lines. Sel Semenovod Kiev 23:51-54.

Chekalin NM. 1972. [The evaluation of the degree of the selectivity of fertilization in peavine]. Sel’Skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya 7 (1):103-107.

Chekalin NM. 1973. Selectivity of fertilization in the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Soviet Genetics 9 (12):1501-1507.

Chekalin NM. 1975. Character of displaying selective fertilization in self fertilized lines and hybrids of Lathyrus sativus. Sel Semenovod Kiev 30:40-44.

Chin HF, Hanson J. 1999. Seed storage. In: Loch DS, Ferguson J, editors. Forage Seed Production Vol II Tropical and Subtropical Species. CABI Publishing, UK. pp. 303-315.

Chowdhury MA, Slinkard AE. 1997. Natural outcrossing in grasspea. Journal of Heredity 88 (2):154-156.

Click here for a list of selected references on characterization of forage legume genetic for a list of selected references on breeding systems in forage legume CSIRO, DPI&F(Qld), CIAT and ILRI, Brisbane, Date accessed: 17 Jan 2011. Date accessed: 17 Jan 2011. Date accessed: 23 March 2010.English (1.5 MB),  Spanish (1.4 MB) and French (1.9 MB). Date accessed 17 Jan 2011. Date accessed: 17 Jan 2011.


Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R. 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. (

de Almeida JRM, Maltex AC. 1979. Cross-pollination of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) in Portugal. Agronomia Lusitana. 39 (4):295-304.

Fairey DT, Hampton JG, editors. 1997. Forage Seed Production, Volume 1: Temperate species. CABI publishing.

FAO/IPGRI. 1994. Genebank standards. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic.

ISTA. 2008. International Rules for Seed Testing. International Seed Testing Association. ISTA secretariat, CH-Switzerland. Available from:

Frison EA, Bos L, Hamilton RI, Mathur SB, Taylor JD, editors. 1990. FAO/IBPGR Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Legume Germplasm. Available

Godt MJW, Hamrick JL. 1991. Estimates of outcrossing rates in Lathyrus latifolius populations. Genome 34 (6):988-992.

Godt MJW, Hamrick JL. 1993. Patterns and levels of pollen mediated gene flow in Lathyrus latifolius. Evolution 47 (1):98-110.

Godt MJW.1991. Genetic structure, mating patterns, and gene flow in Lathyrus latifolius L. [PhD thesis]: University of Georgia, 145 pp.

Gorodnii NG, Fesenko AF. 1975. Opylenie chiny. [Pollination of Lathyrus pratensis]. 95 (3):24-25.

Gottschalk W. 1978. The breeding system of Vicia faba. Legume Research l (2):69-76.

Gutierrez JF, Vaquero F, Vences FJ. 1994. Allopolyploid vs. autopolyploid origins in the genus Lathyrus (Leguminosae). Heredity 73 (1):29-40.

Hacker B, Hanson J. 1999. Crop growth and development: reproduction. In: Loch DS, Ferguson J, editors. Forage Seed Production vol II Tropical and Subtropical Species. CABI International, Cambridge, UK. pp. 93-111.

Hawtin GC, Omar M. 1980. Estimation of outcrossing between isolation plots of faba beans. FABIS Newsletter 2:28-29.

Humphreys LR, Riveros F. 1986. Tropical Pasture Seed Production. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 8, FAO, Rome, Italy. 203pp.

IBPGR, CEC, 1984. Forage Legume Descriptors. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources Secretariat, Rome, Italy: Commission of European Communities Secretariat, Brussels. Available from:

IBPGR. 1992. Descriptors for White Clover (Trifolium repens). International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy. 52 pp.

International Seed Testing Association [homepage of (ISTA)] [online]. Available from:

ISTA. 2006. Handbook on Seedling Evaluation, 3rd Edition.

Kalin Arroyo MT. 1981. Breeding systems and pollination biology in Leguminosae. In: Polhill, RM, Raven PH, editors. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K., pp. 723-769.

Keya NCO, van Eijnatten CLM. 1975. Studies on oversowing of natural grasslands in Kenya 1. The effects of seed threshing, scarification and storage on the germination of Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal 40:261-263.

Loch DS, Ferguson JE, editors. 1999. Forage Seed Production, Volume 2: Tropical and subtropical species. CABI publishing.

Maas BL, Hanson J, Robertson LD, Kerridge PC, Moneim AE. 1997. Forages. In: Fuccillo D, Sears L, Stapleton P, editors. Biodiversity in Trust. Cambridge University Press. pp. 322-348.

McIvor JG, Bray RA, editors. 1983 Genetic Resources of Forage Plants. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.

Nan ZB, Hanson J, Yeshi MW. 1998. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed borne fungi and germination of Stylosanthes hamata, S. guianensis and S. scabra. Seed Science and Technology 26:33-43.

Nan ZB, Hanson J. 1998. Detection of seed borne fungi in Stylosanthes hamata, S. guianensis and S. scabra. Seed Science and Technology 26:333-345.

NordGen. 2008. Agreement between (depositor) and the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food concerning the deposit of seeds in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. [online] The Svalbard Gloal Seed Vault, The Nordic Genetic Resource Centre, Alnarp, Sweden. Available from:

Penteado MI de O, Sáenz de Mira LE, Pérez de la Vega M. 1996. Genetic resources of Centrosema spp.: genetic changes associated to the handling of an active collection. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 43: 85 90.

Piatitskaia LI. 1972. Biology of flowering and viability of pollen of Lathyrus vernus. In: Rasteniia Prirodnoi Flory Sibiri Dlia Zelenogo Stroitel’Stva. pp.166-169.

Pope M, Bond DA. 1975. Influence of isolation distance on genetic contamination of field bean (Vicia faba L.) seed produced in small plots. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 85:509-513.

Porceddu E, Monti LM, Frusciante L, Valpe N. 1980. Analysis of cross-pollination in Vicia faba L. Zeitschrift Pflanzenzuechtung 84:313-322.

Rao NK, Hanson J, Dulloo ME, Ghosh K, Nowel D, Larinde M. 2006. Manual of seed handling in genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy. Available in

Robertson LD, Cardona C. 1986. Studies on bee activity and outcrossing in increase plots of Vicia faba L. Field Crops Research 15:157-164.

Schaal BA. 1989. The population biology of an annual Texas lupine. Advances in legume biology. Proceedings of the second international legume conference; St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. 29. pp. 283-292.

Skerman PJ, Cameron DG, Riveros F. 1988. Tropical Forage Legumes, FAO Plant Production and Protection Series, no. 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Souza FHD, Marcos-Filho J. 1993. Physiological characteristics associated with water imbibition by Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. seeds. Seed Science and Technology 21:561-572.

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture [homepage of theITPGRFA] [online]. Available from:

Thormann I, Metz T, Engels JMM. 2004. The Species Compendium (release 1.0; December 2004). [online] Available from:

Valero M, Youssef A, Vernet P. 1986. Is there polymorphism in the breeding system of Lathyrus latifolius? In: Kaul AK, Combes D, editors. Lathyrus and Lathyrism. Proceedings of the International Symposium 9-13 September France, New York: Third World Medical Research Foundation.  pp. 105-117.

Van de Wouw M, Hanson J, Nokoe S. 1999. Observation strategies for morphological characterization of forages. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 46:63-71.

Wang YR, Hanson J, Wolde YM. 2007. Effect of sulfuric acid pretreatment on breaking hard seed dormancy in diverse accessions of five wild Vigna species. Seed Science and Technology 35:550-559.

Wang YR, Hanson J. 2008. An improved method for breaking dormancy in seeds of Sesbania seban. Cambridge University Press. Experimental Agriculture. Vol. 44, pp. 185–195. Abstract available from:

Wang YR, Hanson J. 2008. The impact of temperature on seed germination in diverse accessions of 4 wild Vigna species. Proceedings of the XXI International Grasslands Congress, Multifunctional Grasslands in a Changing World. Hohhot, China, June 2008, p. 557.

Williams RJ. 1983. Tropical legumes. In: McIvor JG, Bray RA, editors. Genetic resources of forage plants. CSIRO, Australia. pp. 17-37.

Yunus AG, Jackson MT. 1991. The genepools of the grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Plant Breeding 106 (4):319-328.

Zhang X, Mosjidis JA. 1998. Rapid prediction of mating system of Vicia species. Crop Science 38 (3):872-875. 0011-183X.

The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.