International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)

Genetic Resources Program

CIAT’s Genetic Resources Program conserves large collections of beans and tropical forages as seed and whole plants, and cassava in vitro and as small plants.

Process of counting seeds before packaging in the CIAT genebank. <br/>Credit: Shawn Landersz
Process of counting seeds before packaging in the CIAT genebank. Photo: Shawn Landersz

Regeneration of beans and forages is undertaken by a specialised production group that makes use of advanced facilities to produce suitable quantities of high-quality seed that maintains the genetic integrity of the original accession.

The Genetic Resources Program is collaborating with researchers in the CGIAR HarvestPlus program to select bean varieties that offer increased iron for better nutrition. It is also working to find tolerance to cassava brown streak virus and with the Livestock-Plus program of CGIAR to improve Brachiaria as a fodder plant.

The Germplasm Health Unit has a staff of nine. For beans and forages, the GHU examines seed for the presence of pathogens and pests, while for cassava, samples of which are generally produced in vitro, the focus is on virus indexing.

Key Staff

Genebank Manager: Peter Wenzl, Genetic Resources Program Leader
Head of Germplasm Health Unit: Maritza Cuervo Ibáñez
Key staff: Luis G. Santos, Coordinator of seed conservation; Ericson Aranzales, Coordinator of tissue culture.


External links

Search Genesys for accessions at CIAT

Key performance indicators of CGIAR genebanks, 2012-2021

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021

Genebank operations, 2012-2021

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Beans 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 37,938 37,938 37,938
Beans 2. Number accessions received 320 26 304 0 303 6 0 0 0 0
Beans 3. Number accessions regenerated 1,776 269 147 247 4,826 60 259 929 720 700
Beans 4. Number accessions multiplied 363 1,887 2,188 4,850 303 3,680 3,421 3,486 1,010 751
Beans 5. Number accessions health tested 1,973 890 1,375 2,235 2,980 2,624 4,870 4,796 1,790 1,506
Beans 6. Number accessions cleaned 1,497 746 1,268 1,987 2,783 2,429 0
Beans 7. Number accessions viability tested 5,357 889 4,880 5,886 2,980 6,617 6,248 6,943 4,617 4,689
Cassava 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 6,155 5,967 5,967
Cassava 2. Number accessions received 51 625 0 571 52 0 0 0 0 0
Cassava 3. Number accessions regenerated 0 1,000 0 0 500 1,500 800 1,830 0 0
Cassava 4. Number accessions multiplied 6,632 4,199 3,661 4,098 3,692 4,664 5,500 5,763 5,601 6,164
Cassava 5. Number accessions health tested 5,709 1,053 1,458 1,817 2,378 4,459 1,835 1,217 1,376 538
Cassava 6. Number accessions cleaned 0 1,011 1,202 200 1,271 0 782 596 94 154
Cassava 7. Number accessions viability tested 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Forages 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 22,694 22,694 22,694
Forages 2. Number accessions received 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Forages 3. Number accessions regenerated 0 357 578 412 2,073 43 213 138 27 117
Forages 4. Number accessions multiplied 2,464 1,160 864 1,900 0 590 1,145 1,363 24 832
Forages 5. Number accessions health tested 1,770 1,495 785 1,744 1,685 1,266 1,172 2,444 650 504
Forages 6. Number accessions cleaned 11,321 1,103 604 1,423 1,378 936 0
Forages 7. Number accessions viability tested 1,684 1,470 2,874 2,369 1,685 3,209 2,890 2,753 1,622 859

Number of samples distributed to users within and outside the CGIAR, 2012-2021

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
1. Total number external germplasm requests 1,187 138 105 143 158 96 73 86 41 43

Genebank Platform publications, 2017-2020

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
Debouck, D.G., Araya-Villalobos, R., Chavez-Barrantes, N. Phaseolus angucianae (Leguminosae: Phaseoleae), a new bean species from Fila Cruces of Southeastern Costa Rica. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas READ
Jimenez, J., Carvajal-Yepes, M., Leiva, A.M., Cruz, M., Elena Romero, L., Bolaños, C.A., Lozano, I., Cuellar, W.J. Complete genome sequence of rice hoja blanca tenuivirus Isolated from a susceptible rice cultivar in Colombia. Microbiology Resource Announcements READ
Visioni, A., Kehel, Z. Genome wide association mapping of seedling and adult plant resistance to barley stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) in India. Frontiers in Plant Science READ
Norton, G.J., Travis , A.J., Douglas, A., Fairley, S., De Paiva Alves, E., Naredo, E., McNally, K.L., Sumon, M., Islam, R., Price, A.H. Genome wide association mapping of grain and straw biomass traits in the rice Bengal and Assam Aus Panel (BAAP) grown under alternate wetting and drying and permanently flooded irrigation. Frontiers in Plant Science READ
Lee, J.S., Wissuwa, M., Zamora, O.B., Ismail, A.M.  Novel sources of aus rice to zinc deficiency tolerance identified through association analysis using high- density SNP array. Rice Science READ
Lee, J.S., Kwak, J., Yoon, M.R., Lee, J.S., Hay F.R. Contrasting tocol ratios associated with seed longevity in rice variety groups. Seed Science Research READ
Lozano, I., Leiva, A. M., Jimenez, J., Fernandez, E., Carvajal-Yepes, M., Cuervo, M., Cuellar, W. J. Resolution of cassava-infecting alphaflexiviruses: Molecular and biological characterization of a novel group of potexviruses lacking the TGB3 gene. Virus Research READ
Varshney, R., Saxena, R.,Upadhyaya, H., Khan, A., Yu, Y., Kim, C., Rathore, A., Kim, D., Kim, J., An, S., Kumar, V., Anuradha, G., Narasimhan Yamini, K., Zhang, S., Muniswamy, W., Kim, J., Penmetsa, R., von Wettberg, E., Datta, S. Whole-genome resequencing of 292 pigeonpea accessions identifies genomic regions associated with domestication and agronomic traits. Nature Genetics READ
Ramakrishnan, M., Antony Ceasar,S., Vinod,K. K. V., Duraipandiyan,V. T. P., Ajeesh Krishna,T. P., Upadhyaya, H., Al-Dhabi, N. A., Ignacimuthu, S. Identification of putative QTLs for seedling stage phosphorus starvation response in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) by association mapping and cross species synteny analysis. Plos One READ
Shimray, P.W., Bajaj, D., Srivastava, R., Daware, Av, Upadhyaya, H.D., Kumar, R., Bharadwaj, C., Tyagi, A.K., Parida, S.K. Identifying transcription factor genes associated with yield traits in chickpea. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter READ
Debouck, D.G.; Chavez-Barrantes, N. and Araya-Villalobos, R. New records of Phaseolus microcarpus (Leguminosae: Phaseoleae) for Costa Rica. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas READ
Guevara-Ohara, J.E., C.I. Cardozo-Conde, L.G. Santos-Meléndez. Tolerancia a la desecación y almacenamiento de la semilla de guayaba (Psidium guajava). Agronomía Costarricense READ
Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Cardwell, K. ; Nelson, A. ; Garrett, K. A.; Giovani, B. ; Saunders, D.G.O.; Kamoun, S.; Legg, J.P.; Verdier, V.; Lessel, J.; Neher, R. A.; Day, R.; Pardey, P.; Gullino, M.L.; Records, A.R.; Bextine, B.; Leach, J.E.; Staiger, Simone & Tohme, Joe. A global surveillance system for crop diseases. Science READ
Gonzalez-Guzman, J.J., Debouck, D.G. and Wenzl, P. Multipurpose leguminous trees for the lowland tropics in CIAT’s genebank. Legume Perspectives READ
Beebe, S.E., D.G. Debouck. Common beans and lima beans in the northern Andes: evolutionary riddles and potential utility. Annual Report Bean Improvement Cooperative READ
Hart, J.P., A.G. Vargas, J.S. Beaver, D.G. Debouck, T.G. Porch. Genotyping the ex situ genetic resources of wild and cultivated tepary bean. Annual Report Bean Improvement Cooperative READ
Cherotich Sheillah, Njuguna Jane, Muchugi Alice, Muthamia Japhet, Otaye Daniel, Graziosi Ignazio and Kinyanjui Zakayo. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and marula (Sclerocarya birrea A. Rich.) in agroforestry systems in Kenya African Journal of Plant Science READ
Jae-Sung Lee, Jieun Kwak, Jun-Hyeon Cho, Dmytro Chebotarov, Mi-Ra Yoon, Jeom-Sig Lee, N. Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Fiona R. Hay A high proportion of beta-tocopherol in vitamin E is associated with poor seed longevity in rice produced under temperate conditions Plant Genetic Resources READ
Ezekiel Ahn, Zhenbin Hu, Ramasamy Perumal, Louis K. Prom, Gary Odvody, Hari D. Upadhyaya, Clint Magill Genome wide association analysis of sorghum mini core lines regarding anthracnose, downy mildew, and head smut PLoS One READ
Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Mendez, A.C.; Diaz, M.V.; Sosa, C C.; Debouck, D.G.; Kehel, Z.; Guarino, L. A gap analysis modelling framework to prioritize collecting for ex situ conservation of crop landraces. Diversity and Distributions READ
Wang, Z.; Wang, X.; Zhang, H.; Ma, L.; Zhao, H.; Jones C.S.; Chen, J.; Liu G. A genome-wide association study approach to the identification of candidate genes underlying agronomic traits in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Plant Biotechnology Journal READ
Schultze-Kraft, R.; Peters, M.; Wenzl, P. A historical appraisal of the tropical forages collection conserved at CIAT. Genetic Resources READ
R. Prabu, C. Vanniarajan, M. Vetriventhan, R. P. Gnanamalar, R. Shanmughasundaram & J. Ramalingam Association studies in barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea (Roxb.) Link) for early maturity and yield contributing traits at high altitude region Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding READ
Debouck, D.G.; Rodríguez-Quiel, E. Avances sobre los recursos genéticos de frijol (Phaseolus sp.) en Panamá. Ciencia Agropecuaria READ
Guevara Ohara, J.E.; Cardozo Conde, C.I.; Santos Meléndez, L.G. Caracterización morfo-anatómica y protocolo para estimar la viabilidad de semillas de Psidium guajava. Acta Agronómica READ
Lai, D., A.B. Maimann, E. Macea, C.H. Ocampo, G. Cardona, M. Picmanová, B. Darbani, C.E. Olsen, D.G. Debouck, B. Raatz, B Lindberg Møller & F. Rook. Biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in Phaseolus lunatus and the evolution of oxime-based defenses. Plant Direct READ
Salazar, D.E.; Santos, L.G.; Wenzl, P.; Hay, F.R. Effect of dry heat on seed germination of Desmodium and Stylosanthes species. Seed Science and Technology READ
Caproni, L.; Raggi, L.; Talsma, E.F.; Wenzl, P.; Negri, V. European landrace diversity for common bean biofortification: a genome-wide association study. Scientific Report READ
Betancourth, C.; Salomón, C.; Montaño, S.; Salazar, C.; Uribe, P.; Martínez, A.; Muñoz, L.; Cuervo, M. First report of Sugarcane mosaic virus in achira (Canna edulis Ker.) in Nariño, Colombia. Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Cientifica READ
Habte, E., Muktar, M.S., Abdena, A., Hanson, J., Sartie, A.M., Negawo, A.T., Machado, J.C., Ledo, F.J.S. & Jones, C.S Forage performance and detection of marker trait associations with potential for Napier grass (Cenchrus purpureus) improvement Agronomy READ
Lee, Jae-Sung, Jieun Kwak, & Fiona R. Hay Genetic markers associated with seed longevity and vitamin E in diverse Aus rice varieties Seed Science Research READ
Tamiru, A., Paliwal, R., Manthi, S.J. et al. Genome wide association analysis of a stemborer egg induced “call-for-help” defence trait in maize Sci Rep READ
Muhammad Massub Tehseen, Fatma Aykut Tonk, Muzaffer Tosun, Ahmed Amri, Carolina P. Sansaloni, Ezgi Kurtulus, Mariana Yazbek, Khaled Al-Sham’aa, Izzet Ozseven, Luqman Bin Safdar, Ali Shehadeh, Kumarse Nazari Genome-wide association study of resistance to PstS2 and Warrior races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (stripe rust) in bread wheat landraces The plant Genome READ
Halewood, Michael, Nelissa Jamora, Isabel Noriega, Noelle Anglin, Peter Wenzl, Thomas Payne, Marie-Noelle Ndjiondjop, Luigi Guarino, P. Kumar, Mariana Yazbek, Alice Muchugi, Vania Azevedo, Marimagne Tchamba, Chris Jones, Ramaiah Venuprasad, Nicolas Roux, Germplasm Acquisition and Distribution by CGIAR Genebanks Plants READ
Xing, Y.; Hernández Nopsa, J.F.; Andersen, K.F.; Andrade-Piedra, J.L.; Beed, F.; Blomme, G.; Carvajal-Yepes, M.; Coyne, D.; Cuéllar, W.; Forbes, G.; Kreuze, J.F.; Kroschel, J.; Kumar, P.L.; Legg, J.P.; Parker, M.; Schulte-Geldermann, E.; Sharma, K.; Garre Global cropland connectivity: A risk factor for invasion and saturation by emerging pathogens and pests. BioScience. READ
McCouch, S. , Navabi, K. , Abberton, M. , Anglin, N. L. , Barbieri, R. L.* , Baum, M. , Bett, K. , Booker, H. , Brown, G. L. , Bryan, G. L. , Cattivelli, L. , Charest, D. , Eversole, K. , Freitas, M. , Ghamkhar, K. , Grattapaglia, D.* , Henry, R. , Inglis Mobilizing Crop Biodiversity Molecular Plant READ
Debouck, D.G., N. Chaves-Barrantes & R. Araya-Villalobos. Phaseolus albicarminus (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae), a new wild bean species from the subhumid forests of southern central Costa Rica. Phytotaxa READ
Oluwole OO, Olomitutu OE, Paliwal R, Oyatomi OA, Abberton MT, Obembe OO. Preliminary Assessment of the Association between DArT-SEQ SNP and some Nutritional Traits in African Yam Bean. Trop J Nat Prod Res rel=noopener" target="_blank">READ
Sellitti, S.; Vaiknoras, K.; Smale, M.; Jamora, N.; Andrade, R.; Wenzl, P.; Labarta, R. The contribution of the CIAT genebank to the development of iron-biofortified bean varieties and well-being of farm households in Rwanda. Food Security READ
Sansaloni, C., Franco, J., Santos, B. … Kehel, Z, … et al.  Diversity analysis of 80,000 wheat accessions reveals consequences and opportunities of selection footprints. Nature Communications READ