International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)

The T.T. Chang Genetic Resources Center in The Philippines is the largest collection of rice diversity in the world, with more than 130,000 accessions, including genetic stocks, landraces and wild relatives.

Harvesting rice accessions at IRRI in Los Baños, Philippines.
Harvesting rice accessions at IRRI in Los Baños, Philippines. Credit: Getty Images Reportage photographer Brent Stirton

IRRI has a strong focus on seed conservation research, largely directed to greater longevity of seeds in storage and improved precision of predicted seed longevity. The T.T. Chang Genetic Resources Center is actively working to improve efficiency, for example by testing an automated seed sorter that will allow seed processing to take place overnight and thus free staff for other routine operations.

The genetic resources center also has a molecular genetics team working on genetic diversity and biosystematics, and using genetic markers to find beneficial versions of genes. Data are managed, maintained and made available through the International Rice Genebank Collection Information System (IRGCIS).

The Germplasm Health Unit is well established and is a recognized component of the Philippines quarantine and phytosanitary certification system with responsibilities to the Philippines Government as well as to IRRI.

Key staff

Head, T.T. Chang Genetic Resources Center: Venuprasad Ramaiah
Head of Germplasm Health Unit: Gururaj Kulkarni
Genebank Manager: Flora de Guzman


Key performance indicators of CGIAR genebanks, 2012-2021

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
1. Total number of accessions 117,164 121,595 126,593 127,577 127,917 130,139 130,465 132,166 132,163 132,313
2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 107,202 113,194 117,061 120,131 120,074 119,763 120,734 122,250 121,699 118,726
3. Number of seed accessions 117,164 121,595 126,593 127,577 127,917 130,139 130,465 132,166 132,163 132,313
4. Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5. Number of live plant accessions 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2
6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 114,446 114,886 114,886 116,294 116,294 116,294 116,290 116,286 116,288 120,601
7. Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8. Number of wild species accessions 4,494 4,496 4,475 3,718 3,922

Genebank operations, 2012-2021

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data
Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 132,126 132,124 132,290
2. Number accessions received 2,148 6 0 40 210 1,756 29 146 0 0
3. Number accessions regenerated 68 57 211 12 2,537 359 337 175 500 370
4. Number accessions multiplied 3,078 6,281 2,609 5,894 3,291 2,980 2,680 1,583 1,373 675
5. Number accessions health tested 18,351 6,120 6,360 11,934 8,065 8,789 11,022 9,321 2,726 9,991
6. Number accessions cleaned 201 208 160 39 1,376 99 162 20 39 17
7. Number accessions viability tested 18,521 28,453 54,670 41,309 21,570 24,364 24,098 23,871 27,525 30,897

Number of samples distributed to users within and outside the CGIAR, 2012-2021

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Indicator 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
1. Total number external germplasm requests 162 205 149 112 136 107 119 67 49
2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 31,467 17,625 28,730 13,423 26,682 19,662 4,545 1,705 11,101
3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 13,065 14,407 8,454 4,581 9,136 7,534 5,309 1,541 4,472
4. Total number of samples distributed 44,532 32,032 37,184 18,004 35,818 27,196 9,854 3,246 15,573
5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 9,929 11,848 9,013 11,742 20,239 16,965 4,521 1,654 10,661
6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 7,931 10,841 5,539 3,975 8,989 7,274 5,305 1,536 4,466
7. Total number of accessions distributed 17,860 22,689 14,552 15,717 29,228 24,239 9,826 3,190 15,127
8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 7,239 4,211 1,531 4,466
9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 6,811 5,308 3,675 1,459 4,022

Genebank Platform publications, 2017-2020

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
Halewood, M., Chiurugwi, T., Sackville Hamilton, R., Kurtz, B., Marden, E., Welch, E., Michiels, F., Mozafari, J., Sabran, M. ,Patron, N., Kersey, P., Bastow, R., Dorius, S., Dias, S,. McCouch, S., Powell, W. Tansley review: Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture: opportunities and challenges emerging from the science and information technology revolution. New Phytologist READ
Halewood, M., Lopez Noriega, I., Ellis, D., Roa, C., Rouard, M., Sackville Hamilton, R. Using Genomic sequence information to increase conservation and sustainable use of crop diversity and benefit-sharing. Biopreservation and Biobanking READ
Norton, G.J., Travis , A.J., Douglas, A., Fairley, S., De Paiva Alves, E., Naredo, E., McNally, K.L., Sumon, M., Islam, R., Price, A.H. Genome wide association mapping of grain and straw biomass traits in the rice Bengal and Assam Aus Panel (BAAP) grown under alternate wetting and drying and permanently flooded irrigation. Frontiers in Plant Science READ
Wang, D., Agosto-Perez, F., Chebotarov, D., Shi, Y., Marchini, J., Fitzgerald, M., McNally, K.L., Alexandrov, A., McCouch, S.R. An imputation platform to enhance integration of rice genetic resources. Nature Communications READ
Wang, W.S., Mauleon, R., Hu, Z.Q., Chebotarov ,D., Tai, S.S., Wu, Z.C., Li, M., Zheng, T.Q., Fuentes, R.R., Zhang, F., Mansueto, L., Copetti, D., Sanciangco, M., Palis, K.C., Xu, J.L., Chen, S., Fu, B.Y., Zhang, H.L., Gao, Y.M., Zhao, X.Q., Shen, F., Cui, X., Yu, H., Li, Z.C., Chen, M.L., Detras, J., Zhou, Y.L., Zhang, X.Y., Zhao, Y., Kudrna, D., Wang, C.C., Li, R., Jia, B., Lu, J.Y., He, X.C., Dong, Z.T., Xu, J.B., Li, Y.H., Wang, M., Shi, J.X., Li, J., Zhang, D.B., Lee , S.H., Hu, W.S., Poliakov, A., Dubchak, I., Ulat, V.J., Borja, F.N., Mendoza, J.R., Al, J., Li, J., Gao, Q., Niu, Y.C., Yue, Z., Naredo, M.E.B., Talag, J., Wang, X.Q., Li, J.J., Fang, X.D., Yin, Y., Glaszmann, J.C., Zhang, J.W., Li, J.Y., Hamilton, R.S., Wing, R.A., Ruan, J., Zhang, G.Y., Wei, C.C., Alexandrov, N., McNally, K.L.*, Li, Z.K., Leung, H. Genomic variation in 3,010 diverse accessions of Asian cultivated rice. Nature READ
Scheben, A., Chan, C.K.K., Mansueto, L., Mauleon, R., Larmande, P., Alexandrov, N., Wing, R., McNally, K.L., Quesneville, H., Edwards, D. Comparing progress in single-access information systems for wheat and rice crop improvement. Briefings in Bioinformatics READ
Stein, J.C., Yu, Y.S., Copetti, D., Zwick, D.J., Zhang, L., Zhang, C.G., Chougule, K., Gao, D.Y., Iwata, A., Goicoechea, J.L., Wei, S., Wang, J., Liao, Y., Wang, M.H., Jacquemin, J., Becker, C., Kudrna, D., Zhang, J.W., Londono, C.E.M., Song, X., Lee, S.H., Sanchez, P., Zuccolo, A., Ammiraju, J.S.S., Talag, J., Danowitz, A., Rivera, L.F., Gschwend, A.R., Noutsos,C., Wu, C.C., Kao, S.M., Zeng, J.W., Wei, F.J., Zhao., Q., Feng, Q., E.L., Baidouri., M., Carpentier, M.C., Lasserre, E., Cooke., R., da Rosa Farias, D., da Maia, L.C., dos Santos, R.S., Nyberg, K.G., McNally, K.L., Mauleon, R., Alexandrov, N, Schmutz J, Flowers D, Fan CZ, Weigel D., Jena, K.K., Wicker, T., Chen, M.S., Han, B,, Henry, R., Hsing, Y.I.C., Kurata, N,, Costa de Oliveira, A., Panaud, O., Jackson, S.A., Machado, C.A., Sanderson, M.J., Long, M.Y., Ware, D., Wing, R.A. Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rice relatives unveil genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza. Nature Genetics READ
Hay, F.R.,Valdez, R., Lee, J.S., Cruz, P.S. Seed longevity phenotyping: recommendations on research methodology. Journal of Experimental Botany READ
Lee, J.S., Wissuwa, M., Zamora, O.B., Ismail, A.M.  Novel sources of aus rice to zinc deficiency tolerance identified through association analysis using high- density SNP array. Rice Science READ
Mansueto, L., Fuentes, R.R., Borja, F.N., Detras, J., Abriol-Santos, J.M., Dmytro Chebotarov, D., Millicent Sanciangco, M., Palis, K., Copetti, D., Poliakov, A., Dubchak, I., Solovyev, V., Wing, R.A., Sackville Hamilton, R., Mauleon, R., McNally, K.L., Alexandrov, N. Rice SNP-seek database update: new SNPs, indels, and queries Nucleic Acids Research READ
Naredo, M.E.B., Mercado, S.M.Q., Banaticla-Hilario, M.C.N., Berdos, M.L., Rodriguez, M.A., McNally, K.L., Sackville Hamilton, N. Genetic diversity patterns in ex situ collections of Oryza officinalis wall. ex watt revealed by morphological and microsatellite markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution READ
Catolos, M., Sandhu, N., Dixit, S., Shamsudin, N.A.A., Naredo, M.E.B., McNally, K.L., Henry, A., Diaz, M.G., Kumar, A. Genetic loci enhancing grain yield and root development under variable rice cultivation conditions. Frontiers of Plant Science READ
Whitehouse, K.J., Hay, F.R., Ellis, R.H. High-temperature stress during drying improves subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed longevity. Seed Science Research READ
Lee, J.S., Kwak, J., Yoon, M.R., Lee, J.S., Hay F.R. Contrasting tocol ratios associated with seed longevity in rice variety groups. Seed Science Research READ
Timple, S.E., Hay, F.R. High-temperature drying of seeds of wild Oryza species intended for long-term storage. Seed Science and Technology READ
Jae-Sung Lee, Marlina Velasco-Punzalan, Myrish Pacleb, Rocel Valdez, Tobias Kretzschmar, Kenneth L McNally, Abdel M Ismail, Pompe C Sta Cruz, N Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Fiona R Hay Variation in seed longevity among diverse Indica rice varieties Annals of Botany READ
Jae-Sung Lee, Jieun Kwak, Jun-Hyeon Cho, Dmytro Chebotarov, Mi-Ra Yoon, Jeom-Sig Lee, N. Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Fiona R. Hay A high proportion of beta-tocopherol in vitamin E is associated with poor seed longevity in rice produced under temperate conditions Plant Genetic Resources READ
Jae-Sung Lee, Nese Sreenivasulu, Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Ajay Kohli Brown Rice, a Diet Rich in Health Promoting Properties Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology READ
Zapico FL, Dizon JT, Borromeo TH, McNally KL, Fernando ES, Hernandez JE Genetic erosion in traditional rice agro-ecosystems in Southern Philippines: drivers and consequences Plant Genetic Resources READ
Wang C, Yu H, Huang J, Wang WS, Faruquee M, Zhang F, Zhao X, Fu B, Chen K, Zhang H, Tai SS, Wei CC, Li J, McNally K, Alexandrov N, Gao X, Li Z, Xu J & Zheng TQ Towards a deeper haplotype mining of complex traits in rice with RFGB v2.0 Plant Biotechnology Journal READ
Zapico F, Hernandez J, Borromeo T, McNally K, Dizon J, Fernando E Traditional Agro-ecosystems in Southern Philippines: Vulnerabilities, Threats and Interventions Int. J. of Disaster Resilience Built Env. READ
Santos JD, Chebotarov D, McNally KL, Bartholomé J, Droc G, Billot C, Glaszmann JC Fine scale genomic signals of admixture and alien introgression among Asian rice landraces Genome Biology and Evolution READ
Fuentes RR, Chebotarov D, Duitama J, Smith S, De la Hoz JF, Mohiyuddin M, Wing RA, McNally KL, Tatarinova T, Grigoriev A, Mauleon R, Alexandrov N Structural variants in 3,000 rice genomes Genome Research READ
Cal A, Sanciangco M, Rebolledo MC, Luquet D, Torres R, McNally K, Henry A Leaf morphology, rather than plant water status, underlies genetic variation of rice leaf rolling under drought Plant Cell Environment READ
Venske E, Stafen CF, de Oliveira VF, Quecini VM, da Maia LC, de Magalhães AM, McNally KL, de Oliveira AC, Pegoraro C Genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium and population structure in a working panel of Brazilian rice accessions J Appl Genet READ
OA Agbeleye, MR Olubiyi, BO Ehirim, AO Shittu,  OL Jolayemi, VO Adetimirin, OJ Ariyo, KA Sanni, and R Venuprasad. Screening African rice (O. glaberrima Steud.) for tolerance to Abiotic Stress. III. Flooding. Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics READ
N Kuya, J Sun, K Iijima, R Venuprasad and T Yamamoto, Novel method for evaluation of anaerobic germination in rice and its application to diverse genetic collections. Breeding Science READ
A Kohli, BPM Swamy and R Venuprasad, 2019.  Interfacing conventional and modern approaches to speedup and focus plant breeding, Rural 21 READ
Zhou, Yong, Dmytro Chebotarov, Dave Kudrna, Victor Llaca, Seunghee Lee, Shanmugam Rajasekar, Nahed Mohammed, Noor Al-Bader, Chandler Sobel-Sorenson, Praveena Parakkal, Lady Johanna Arbelaez, Natalia Franco, Nickolai Alexandrov, N. Ruaraidh Sackville Hamil A platinum standard pan-genome resource that represents the population structure of Asian rice Scientific Data READ
Lee, Jae-Sung, Dmytro Chebotarov, John Damien Platten, Kenneth McNally, & Ajay Kohli Advanced strategic research to promote the use of rice genetic resources Agronomy READ
Tan, Jeanette Mara P., Maria Celeste Banaticla-Hilario, Pastor Malabrigo, Marjorie Delos Angeles, Inocencio E. Buot, Jr. Anatomical examination of the petiole of eupolypods I (Polypodiales) Biodiversitas READ
Tin, Huynh Quang, Loi Huu Nguyen, Labarosa Jan E. Sandy, Kenneth L. McNally, Susan McCouch, & Benjamin Kilian Assessment of the phenotypic response of 50 CWR‐derived rice lines selected by farmers in the Mekong Delta to salt stress at the seedling stage Agronomy Journal READ
Raubach, Sebastian, Benjamin Kilian, Kate Dreher, Ahmed Amri, Filippo M. Bassi, Ousmane Boukar, Douglas Cook, Alan Cruickshank, Christian Fatokun, Noureddine El Haddad, Alan Humphries, David Jordan, Zacharia Kehel, Shiv Kumar, Sandy Jan Labarosa, Loi Huu From bits to bites: Advancement of the Germinate platform to support genetic resources collections and pre‐breeding informatics for crop wild relatives Crop Science READ
Zapico, Florence L., Josefina T. Dizon, Teresita H. Borromeo, Kenneth L. McNally, Edwino S. Fernando, & Jose E. Hernandez Genetic erosion in traditional rice agro-ecosystems in Southern Philippines: drivers and consequences Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization READ
Lee, Jae-Sung, Jieun Kwak, & Fiona R. Hay Genetic markers associated with seed longevity and vitamin E in diverse Aus rice varieties Seed Science Research READ
Halewood, Michael, Nelissa Jamora, Isabel Noriega, Noelle Anglin, Peter Wenzl, Thomas Payne, Marie-Noelle Ndjiondjop, Luigi Guarino, P. Kumar, Mariana Yazbek, Alice Muchugi, Vania Azevedo, Marimagne Tchamba, Chris Jones, Ramaiah Venuprasad, Nicolas Roux, Germplasm Acquisition and Distribution by CGIAR Genebanks Plants READ
Salaj, T.; Klubicová, K.; Panis, B.; Swennen, R.; Salaj J. Physiological and structural aspects of in vitro somatic embryogenesis in Abies alba Mill. Forests READ
Villanueva, Donald, Melinda Smale, Nelissa Jamora, Grace Lee Capilit, & Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton The contribution of the International Rice Genebank to varietal improvement and crop productivity in Eastern India Food Security READ
Zapico, Florence, Josefina Dizon, Edwino Fernando, Teresita Borromeo, Kenneth McNally, Jose Hernandez Upland rice: Cultural keystone species in a Philippine traditional agroecosystem Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development READ
Lee, Jae-Sung, & Fiona R. Hay Variation in seed metabolites between two indica rice accessions differing in seed longevity Plants READ
Melandri, G., M Sikirou, JD Arbelaez, A Shittu, VK Semwal, KA Konaté, AT Maji, SA Ngaujah, I Akintayo, V Govindaraj, Y Shi, FJ Agosto-Peréz, A Greenberg, G Atlin, R. Venuprasad, SR McCouch. Multiple small-effect alleles of indica origin enhance field-based Fe-toxicity tolerance in rice for West Africa. Frontiers in Plant Science READ
IRRI lab technician sorting rice seeds. Credit: Getty Images Reportage photographer Brent Stirton