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International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

RS Paroda Genebank

ICRISAT focuses on pulses and cereals that are important for food security in the semi-arid areas of the world.

Accessions of wild cereals ready for multiplication at the ICRISAT genebank.
Accessions of wild cereals ready for multiplication at the ICRISAT genebank. Credit: Shawn Landersz

The main genebank collection is at the center’s headquarters in Hyderabad, India, and there are additional facilities in Niger, Kenya and Zimbabwe.

The genebank holds more than 123,000 accessions, almost 50,000 of which are pulses of various kinds, mostly chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, and their wild relatives. Sorghum is the most dominant single species, with 39,000 accessions. There are about 33,000 accessions of millets, including almost 23,000 of pearl millet.

ICRISAT developed the idea of mini-core collections, a representative sample of about 1% of the accessions of a species, selected and evaluated to help breeders find the traits they are interested in. Research is continuing to develop additional mini-core collections in collaboration with breeders.

ICRISAT maintains a Plant Quarantine Laboratory where incoming and outgoing samples are examined and certified by officials of the Indian Plant Quarantine Services.

Useful information

Genebank Director: Hari Upadhyaya
Key staff: DVSSR Sastry, Seed collection manager; KN Reddy, Curator.

Chickpea

Finger millet

Pearl millet

Pigeonpea

Sorghum

External links

Website

Key performance indicators of CGIAR genebanks, 2012-2018

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Chickpea Total number of accessions 20,267 20,267 20,602 20,602 20,602 20,764 20,764
Chickpea Total number of accessions that are currently available 11,638 14,672 16,633 18,759 20,173 19,152 19,203
Chickpea Number of seed accessions 20,267 20,267 20,602 20,602 20,602 20,764 20,764
Chickpea Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Chickpea Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0
Chickpea Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 3,800 3,800 3,800 3,800 3,800 3,800 3,800
Chickpea Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Groundnut Total number of accessions 14,863 14,863 15,446 15,446 15,622 15,622 15,622
Groundnut Total number of accessions that are currently available 7,328 10,295 10,950 11,551 12,108 14,203 14,215
Groundnut Number of seed accessions 14,863 14,863 15,446 15,446 15,622 15,622 15,622
Groundnut Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Groundnut Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 74
Groundnut Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 2,006 2,006 2,006 2,006 2,006 2,006 2,006
Groundnut Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Pearl Millet Total number of accessions 22,211 22,211 22,879 23,092 23,092 23,841 23,841
Pearl Millet Total number of accessions that are currently available 10,950 16,858 20,393 21,131 21,041 22,727 22,856
Pearl Millet Number of seed accessions 22,211 22,211 22,879 23,092 23,092 23,841 23,841
Pearl Millet Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Pearl Millet Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 141
Pearl Millet Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 5,205 5,205 5,205 5,205 5,205 5,205 5,205
Pearl Millet Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 5,205 5,205 5,205 5,205 5,205 5,205 -
Pigeon pea Total number of accessions 13,362 13,632 13,771 13,771 13,778 13,778 13,783
Pigeon pea Total number of accessions that are currently available 6,720 9,014 11,300 10,030 11,359 13,124 13,173
Pigeon pea Number of seed accessions 13,362 13,632 13,771 13,771 13,778 13,778 13,783
Pigeon pea Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Pigeon pea Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pigeon pea Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pigeon pea Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Small millets Total number of accessions 10,235 10,235 11,082 11,457 11,466 11,797 11,797
Small millets Total number of accessions that are currently available 5,036 7,485 8,595 8,641 10,455 10,657 10,918
Small millets Number of seed accessions 10,235 10,235 11,082 11,457 11,466 11,797 11,797
Small millets Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Small millets Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0
Small millets Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 7,622 7,622 7,622 7,622 7,622 7,622 7,622
Small millets Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Sorghum Total number of accessions 37,949 37,949 39,234 39,553 39,948 41,023 41,023
Sorghum Total number of accessions that are currently available 18,709 26,410 36,506 37,160 38,067 40,234 40,347
Sorghum Number of seed accessions 37,949 37,949 39,234 39,553 39,948 41,023 41,023
Sorghum Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Sorghum Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 73
Sorghum Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Sorghum Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 -

Genebank operations, 2012-2018

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Chickpea Number accessions received 820 0 95 0 0 0 -
Chickpea Number accessions regenerated 596 390 183 496 1,556 396 11
Chickpea Number accessions multiplied 2,384 1,569 732 1,983 932 1,582 3,150
Chickpea Number accessions health tested 0 793 841 2,334 1,563 1,240 1,615
Chickpea Number accessions cleaned 0 492 365 0 334 485 574
Chickpea Number accessions viability tested 2,983 2,907 865 2,607 932 3,155 4,601
Groundnut Number accessions received 0 0 35 0 0 0 -
Groundnut Number accessions regenerated 1,115 185 392 335 0 252 1,116
Groundnut Number accessions multiplied 4,456 728 1,567 1,679 686 1,010 2,813
Groundnut Number accessions health tested 0 192 297 685 803 954 200
Groundnut Number accessions cleaned 0 132 270 0 443 253 143
Groundnut Number accessions viability tested 1,551 727 1,633 1,386 781 1,345 2,107
Pearl Millet Number Accessions received 101 55 400 277 918 924 1,087
Pearl Millet Number accessions regenerated 260 95 188 188 847 209 43
Pearl Millet Number accessions multiplied 1,044 846 753 944 774 836 1,151
Pearl Millet Number accessions health tested 0 1,091 1,716 0 2,193 804 803
Pearl Millet Number accessions cleaned 0 954 1,641 0 989 569 667
Pearl Millet Number accessions viability tested 768 577 1,113 974 827 1,972 2,221
Pigeon pea Number accessions received 0 7 7 0 0 0 -
Pigeon pea Number accessions regenerated 206 180 112 167 1,900 220 68
Pigeon pea Number accessions multiplied 1,098 711 445 832 1,632 880 1,175
Pigeon pea Number accessions health tested 0 888 536 833 0 1,889 1,604
Pigeon pea Number accessions cleaned 0 626 435 0 0 1,475 1,506
Pigeon pea Number accessions viability tested 563 1,252 539 947 1,922 2,122 1,155
Small millets Number accessions received 854 15 431 393 466 485 1,139
Small millets Number accessions regenerated 245 140 114 76 1,553 126 188
Small millets Number accessions multiplied 0 560 456 381 1,645 504 714
Small millets Number accessions health tested 973 442 1,090 719 555 6,495 372
Small millets Number accessions cleaned 0 234 309 0 282 336 165
Small millets Number accessions viability tested 944 1,057 924 375 1,624 2,130 1,133
Sorghum Number accessions received 932 560 396 624 1,167 1,620 1,997
Sorghum Number accessions regenerated 290 450 452 566 1,279 249 357
Sorghum Number accessions multiplied 1,154 1,842 1,810 2,832 1,045 996 798
Sorghum Number accessions health tested 0 2,117 1,122 1,777 1,067 1,870 1,751
Sorghum Number accessions cleaned 0 1,007 973 0 276 1,319 300
Sorghum Number accessions viability tested 1,500 1,465 1,663 2,833 1,281 2,461 2,649

Number of samples distributed to users within and outside the CGIAR, 2012-2018

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
sorghum Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 2,390 849 999 1,156 1,803 739 215
sorghum Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 1,926 1,435 1,434 409 923 2,561 260
sorghum Total number of samples distributed 4,316 2,284 2,433 1,565 2,726 3,300 475
sorghum Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 1,936 342 919 545 1,789 465 210
sorghum Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 723 583 975 386 893 2,547 260
sorghum Total number of accessions distributed 2,659 925 1,894 931 2,682 3,012 470
small millets Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 0 1 0 193 40 163 169
small millets Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 185 660 1,166 1,065 1,636 2,197 159
small millets Total number of samples distributed 185 661 1,166 1,258 1,676 2,360 328
small millets Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 0 1 0 193 40 135 151
small millets Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 148 362 828 709 961 1,767 159
small millets Total number of accessions distributed 148 363 828 902 1,001 1,902 310
pigeonpea Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 52 315 1,288 19 382 15 64
pigeonpea Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 283 1,186 1,279 971 825 2,152 4,559
pigeonpea Total number of samples distributed 335 1,501 2,567 990 1,207 2,167 4,623
pigeonpea Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 44 301 1,268 18 303 14 45
pigeonpea Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 246 383 449 608 333 1,827 1,000
pigeonpea Total number of accessions distributed 290 684 1,717 626 636 1,841 1,045
pearl millet Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 339 883 376 237 12 271 144
pearl millet Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 496 840 559 763 730 3,149 491
pearl millet Total number of samples distributed 835 1,723 935 1,000 742 3,420 635
pearl millet Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 22 383 372 217 6 256 100
pearl millet Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 490 470 306 273 697 2,900 276
pearl millet Total number of accessions distributed 512 853 678 490 703 3,156 376
ground nut Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 476 658 922 398 1,604 429 84
ground nut Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 304 122 807 440 595 464 1,019
ground nut Total number of samples distributed 780 780 1,729 838 2,199 893 1,103
ground nut Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 226 241 541 199 1,574 255 76
ground nut Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 205 111 435 217 300 279 275
ground nut Total number of accessions distributed 431 352 976 416 1,874 534 351
chickpea Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 402 457 347 158 5,145 1,418 3,555
chickpea Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 1,160 252 14,961 4,078 1,023 3,353 6,696
chickpea Total number of samples distributed 1,562 709 15,308 4,236 6,168 4,771 10,251
chickpea Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 345 417 338 157 5,125 1,273 2,824
chickpea Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 319 165 2,820 2,539 657 2,784 4,141
chickpea Total number of accessions distributed 664 582 3,158 2,696 5,782 4,057 6,965
all crops Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 3,659 3,163 3,932 2,161 8,986 3,035
all crops Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 4,354 4,495 20,206 7,726 5,732 13,876
all crops Total number of samples distributed 8,013 7,658 24,138 9,887 14,718 16,911
all crops Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 2,573 1,685 3,438 1,329 8,837 2,398
all crops Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 2,131 2,074 5,813 4,732 3,841 12,104
all crops Total number of accessions distributed 4,704 3,759 9,251 6,061 12,678 14,502

Publications by ICRISAT genebank staff in 2018

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
Hamidou, F., Sani, A., Y Hassane, B., Falke, A., Upadhyaya, H.D Screening of chickpea accessions for resistance against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research READ
Khedikar, Y., Pandey, M., Sujay, V., Singh, S., Nayak, S., Klein-Gebbinck, H., Sarvamangala, C., Mukri, G., Garg, V., Upadhyaya, H.,Nadaf, H. L., Gowda, M. V. C., Varshney, Bhat, R. Identification of main effect and epistatic quantitative trait loci for morphological and yield-related traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Molecular Breeding READ
Bab u, B., Sood, S., Kumar, D., Joshi, A., Pattanayak, A., Kant, L., Upadhyaya, H. D. Cross-genera transferability of rice and finger millet genomic SSRs to barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.). 3 Biotech READ
Upadhyaya, H., Narsimha Reddy, K., Vetriventhan, M., Irshad Ahmed, M., Reddy, M. Latitudinal adaptation of flowering response to Photoperiod and temperature in the world collection of Sorghum landraces. Crop Science READ
Kumari, W.M.R., Pushpakumara, D.K.N.G., Weerakoon, W.M.W., Senanayake, D.M.J.B., Upadhyaya, H.D. Morphological characterization of local and introduced finger millet (Elusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) germplasm in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research READ
Vetriventhan, M., Upadhyaya, H. Diversity and trait-specific sources for productivity and nutritional traits in the global proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) germplasm collection. The Crop Journal READ
Bhagyawant, S., Gautam, A., Narvekar, D., Gupta, N., Bhadkaria, Nidhi Srivastava, Hari D. Upadhyaya Biochemical diversity evaluation in chickpea accessions employing mini-core collection. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants READ
Basu, U., Bajaj, D., Sharma, A., Malik, N., Daware, A., Narnoliya, L., Thakro, V., Upadhyaya, H., Kumar, R., Tripathi, S., Bharadwaj, C., Tyagi, A., Parida, S. Genetic dissection of photosynthetic efficiency traits for enhancing seed yield in chickpea. Plant Cell Environment READ
Opole, R. A. , Prasad, P. V. V., Djanaguiraman, M., Vimala, K., Kirkham, M. B., Upadhyaya, H. D. Thresholds, sensitive stages and genetic variability of finger millet to high temperature stress. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science READ
Basu, U., Srivastava, R., Bajaj, D., Thakro, V., Daware, A., Malik, N., Upadhyaya, H., Parida S. Genome-wide generation and genotyping of informative SNPs to scan molecular signatures for seed yield in chickpea. Scientific Reports READ
Gaur, P., Varshney, R., Upadhyaya, H.D., Vadez, V., Sharma, K.K., Bhatnagar, P., Sameer Kumar, C.V., Janila, P., Srinivasan, S., Sajja, S., Sharma, S., Thudi, M., Roorkiwal, M., Saxena, R., Pandey, M., Rao, G.V., Sharma, M., Sudini, H., Gopalakrishnan, G., Ganga Rao, N.V.P.R., Fikre, A., Ojiewo, C., Shewayrga, H.,Motagi, B., Okori, P. Advances in food legumes research at ICRISAT. Ethiopian Journal of Crop Science READ

Publications by ICRISAT genebank staff in 2017

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
Hamidou, F., Sani, A., Y Hassane, B., Falke, A., Upadhyaya, H.D Screening of chickpea accessions for resistance against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research READ
Upadhyaya, H., Narsimha Reddy, K., Vetriventhan, M., Irshad Ahmed, M., Reddy, M. Latitudinal adaptation of flowering response to Photoperiod and temperature in the world collection of Sorghum landraces. Crop Science READ
Upadhyaya, H.D., Reddy, K. N., Ahmed, M., Kumar, V., Gumma, M. K., Ramachandran, S. Geographical distribution of traits and diversity in the world collection of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., synonym: Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone] landraces conserved at the ICRISAT genebank. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution READ
Purushothaman, R., Krishnamurthy, L., Upadhyaya, H., Vadez, V., Varshney, R. Genotypic variation in soil water use and root distribution and their implications for drought tolerance in chickpea. Functional Plant Biology READ
Purushothaman, R., Krishnamurthy, L., Upadhyaya, H., Vadez, V., Varshney, R. Root traits confer grain yield advantages under terminal drought in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crops Research READ
Pandey, M., Agarwal, G., Kale, S., Clevenger, J., Nayak, S., Sriswathi, M., Chitikineni, A., Chavarro, C., Chen, X., Upadhyaya, H., Vishwakarma, M.,Leal-Bertioli, S., Liang, X., Bertioli, D., Guo, B.,Jackson, S., Ozias-Akins, P., Varshney, R. Development and evaluation of a high density genotyping ‘Axiom_Arachis’ array with 58 K SNPs for accelerating genetics and breeding in groundnut. Scientific Reports READ
Upadhyaya H. D., Sangam L. Dwivedi, Mani Vetriventhan, L. Krishnamurthy, and Shailesh Kumar Singh Post-flowering drought tolerance using managed stress trials, adjustment to flowering, and mini core collection in sorghum. Crop science READ
Srivastava, R., Upadhyaya, H., Kumar, R., Daware, A., Basu, U., Shimray, P., Tripathi, S., Bharadwaj, C., Tyagi, A., Parida, S. A multiple QTL-Seq strategy delineates potential genomic loci governing flowering time in chickpea. READ
Yadav, O.P., Upadhyaya, H.D., Reddy, K.N., Jukanti, A.K., Pandey, S., Tyagi, R.K. Genetic resources of pearl millet: Status and utilization. Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources READ
Varshney, R., Saxena, R.,Upadhyaya, H., Khan, A., Yu, Y., Kim, C., Rathore, A., Kim, D., Kim, J., An, S., Kumar, V., Anuradha, G., Narasimhan Yamini, K., Zhang, S., Muniswamy, W., Kim, J., Penmetsa, R., von Wettberg, E., Datta, S. Whole-genome resequencing of 292 pigeonpea accessions identifies genomic regions associated with domestication and agronomic traits. Nature Genetics READ
A.G. Vijayakumar, Ishwar Boodi, P.M. Gaur and H.D. Upadhyaya Genetic diversity for yield and its component traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding READ
Upadhyaya, H., Bajaj, D.,Srivastava, R., Daware, A., Basu, U., Tripathi, S.,Bharadwaj, C.,Tyagi, A., Parida, S. Genetic dissection of plant growth habit in chickpea. Functional & Integrative Genomics READ
Dwivedi, S., Lammerts van Bueren, E., Ceccarelli, S., Grando, S., Upadhyaya, H., Ortiz, R. Diversifying food systems in the pursuit of sustainable food production and healthy diets. Trends in Plant Science READ
Ramakrishnan, M., Antony Ceasar,S., Vinod,K. K. V., Duraipandiyan,V. T. P., Ajeesh Krishna,T. P., Upadhyaya, H., Al-Dhabi, N. A., Ignacimuthu, S. Identification of putative QTLs for seedling stage phosphorus starvation response in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) by association mapping and cross species synteny analysis. Plos One READ
Yol, E., Furat, S., Upadhyaya, H., Uzun, B. Characterization of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) collection using quantitative and qualitative traits in the Mediterranean Basin. Journal of Integrative Agriculture READ
Shimray, P.W., Bajaj, D., Srivastava, R., Daware, Av, Upadhyaya, H.D., Kumar, R., Bharadwaj, C., Tyagi, A.K., Parida, S.K. Identifying transcription factor genes associated with yield traits in chickpea. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter READ
Varshney, R., Shi, C., Thudi, M., Mariac, C., Wallace, J., Qi, P., Zhang, H., Zhao, Y., Wang, X., Rathore, A., Srivastava, R., Chitikineni, A.,Fan, G., Bajaj, P., Punnuri, S.,Gupta, S.K.,Wang, H., Jiang, Y., Couderc, M., Katta, M., Paudel, D.,Mungra,K.D. , Chen, W., Harris-Shultz, K., Garg, V., Desai, N., Doddamani, D., Kane, N., Conner, J., Ghatak, A., Chaturvedi, P., Subramaniam, S., Yadav, O., Berthouly-Salazar, C., Hamidou, F.,Wang, J., Liang, X., Clotault, J., Upadhyaya, H., Cubry, P., Rhoné, B., Gueye, M., Sunkar, R., Dupuy, C., Sparvoli, F., Cheng, S., Mahala,R.S.,Singh, B., Yadav, R., Lyons, E., Datta, S., Hash, C., Devos, K., Buckler, E., Bennetzen, J., Paterson, A., Akins, P., Grando, S.,Wang, J., Mohapatra, T., Weckwerth, W., Reif, J.,Liu, X., Vigouroux, Y., Xu, X. Pearl millet genome sequence provides a resource to improve agronomic traits in arid environments. Nature Biotechnology READ
Upadhyaya, H.D., Kothapally, N.R., Vetriventhan, M., Mohammedd, I.A., Gumma, M.K., Mulinti, T.R.,Singh, S.K. Sorghum germplasm from West and Central Africa maintained in the ICRISAT
genebank: status, gaps, and diversity.
The Crop Journal READ
Falalou, H., Sani, A., Hassane, B., Falke, A., Hari, U. Abiotic stresses tolerance and nutrients contents in groundnut, pearl millet and sorghum mini core germplasm for food and nutrition security. Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources READ
Upadhyaya,H. D.,Reddy, K. N.,Pattanashetti, Reddy, S.,Kumar, V.,Ramachandran, S. Identification of promising sources for fodder traits in the world collection of pearl millet at the ICRISAT genebank. Plant Genetic Resources READ
ICRISAT field staff working the pigeonpea Regeneration and Characterisation field.
ICRISAT field staff working the pigeonpea Regeneration and Characterisation field. Credit: Shawn Landersz
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