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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)

Wellhausen-Anderson Genetic Resources Collections

CIMMYT manages diverse collections of maize and wheat.

A CIMMYT technician counts maize seeds in the CIMMYT genebank.
A CIMMYT technician counts maize seeds in the CIMMYT genebank. Credit: Getty Images Reportage photographer Juan Arrendodo

The wheat collection numbers about 150,000 accessions from more than 100 countries, and consists of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale landraces, cultivars, genetic stocks, breeders’ materials and wild relatives. The maize collection of 28,000 accessions includes the world’s largest collection of maize landraces, created and maintained by farmers over many generations, as well as wild teosinte and Tripsacum wild relatives of maize.

CIMMYT is actively assessing the diversity of the maize and wheat seed collections using genomics technologies. Developing links between accession data and data from breeders are another focus of work. The genebank has been a pioneer in using GRIN-Global and in establishing a QMS. Several operations are certified to ISO 9001:2008 standard.

The Seed Health Unit ensures that all seed conserved in the genebank, as well as any seed imported to or exported from any of CIMMYT’s research locations, meets international phytosanitary standards. The Seed Health Unit has attained ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation.

Useful information

Genetic Resources Program director: Kevin Pixley
Maize germplasm bank manager: Denise Costich
Wheat germplasm bank manager: Tom Payne
Seed health laboratory manager: Monica Mezzalama

Maize

Wheat

Website

Key performance indicators of CGIAR genebanks, 2012-2019

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Maize Base number of accessions in the collections (see description note) 27,820 28,067 28,316 28,339 28,446 28,494 28,746
Maize Number of accessions that are viability tested, disease-free and with sufficient seed number for immediate distribution. 14,848 17,788 17,551 18,887 17,470 18,216 17,676
Maize Number of seed accessions in the collections 27,820 28,067 28,316 28,339 28,333 28,494 28,585
Maize Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in the collections 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maize Number of live plant accessions 161 161 161 146 113 161 161
Maize Numbers of accessions in seed collections held in long-term storage and safety duplicated in a major genebank and in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. 8,334 8,334 8,334 24,575 21,465 21,465 21,454
Maize Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions (e.g., roots, tubers, bananas) in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro samples. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maize Of the accessions that are legally and physically available, how many are wild species? 209 241 267
Wheat Base number of accessions in the collections (see description note) 147,706 149,764 152,835 154,744 154,476 155,325 155,325
Wheat Number of accessions that are viability tested, disease-free and with sufficient seed number for immediate distribution. 117,533 128,797 131,438 139,086 140,331 141,345 127,649
Wheat Number of seed accessions in the collections 147,706 149,764 152,835 154,744 154,476 155,325 155,325
Wheat Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in the collections 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wheat Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wheat Numbers of accessions in seed collections held in long-term storage and safety duplicated in a major genebank and in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. 74,596 91,103 91,103 91,103 125,011 125,011 125,011
Wheat Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions (e.g., roots, tubers, bananas) in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro samples. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wheat Of the accessions that are legally and physically available, how many are wild species? 7,241 6,374 3,192
All crops Base number of accessions in the collections (see description note) 175,526 177,831 181,151 183,083 182,922 183,819 184,071
All crops Number of accessions that are viability tested, disease-free and with sufficient seed number for immediate distribution. 132,381 146,585 148,989 157,973 157,801 159,561 145,325
All crops Number of seed accessions in the collections 175,526 177,831 181,151 183,083 182,809 183,819 183,910
All crops Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions in the collections 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
All crops Number of live plant accessions 161 161 161 146 113 161 161
All crops Numbers of accessions in seed collections held in long-term storage and safety duplicated in a major genebank and in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. 82,930 99,437 99,437 115,678 146,476 146,476 146,465
All crops Number of vegetatively-propagated accessions (e.g., roots, tubers, bananas) in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro samples. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
All crops Of the accessions that are legally and physically available, how many are wild species? 0 0 0 0 7,450 6,615 3,459

Genebank operations, 2012-2019

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Maize Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 32,217
Maize Number accessions received 0 712 1 19 0 0 389
Maize Number accessions regenerated 191 279 210 78 187 265 82 71
Maize Number accessions multiplied 1,591 1,056 1,292 694 530 254 316 440
Maize Number accessions health tested 1,982 2,538 962 2,499 1,645 1,354 2,681 1,615
Maize Number accessions cleaned 4 114 48 144 1,439 128 0 60
Maize Number accessions viability tested 734 1,290 1,037 1,440 881 1,299 2,014 2,671
Wheat Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 142,283
Wheat Number accessions received 2,142 5,526 2,058 3,071 1,909 3,317 1,163 1,036
Wheat Number accessions regenerated 6,852 4,927 10,947 5,467 5,109 1,289 3,720 955
Wheat Number accessions multiplied 8,000 7,420 2,389 1,073 2,539 7,380 1,869 3,047
Wheat Number accessions health tested 18,688 16,179 11,873 7,096 16,116 1,607 15,178 17,798
Wheat Number accessions cleaned 233 3,706 1,116 750 0 0 0 0
Wheat Number accessions viability tested 6,562 11,790 13,527 9,667 8,459 11,776 6,600 6,418
All crops Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 174,500
All crops Number accessions received 2,142 6,238 2,059 3,090 1,909 3,317 1,552 1,036
All crops Number accessions regenerated 7,043 5,206 11,157 5,545 5,296 1,554 3,802 1,026
All crops Number accessions multiplied 9,591 8,476 3,681 1,767 3,069 7,634 2,185 3,487
All crops Number accessions health tested 20,670 18,717 12,835 9,595 17,761 2,961 17,859 19,413
All crops Number accessions cleaned 237 3,820 1,164 894 1,439 128 0 60
All crops Number accessions viability tested 7,296 13,080 14,564 11,107 9,340 13,075 8,614 9,089

Number of samples distributed to users within and outside the CGIAR, 2012-2019

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
All crops Total number external germplasm requests 204 245 195 245 161 297 306
Maize Number of samples distributed internally within the Center and to another CGIAR Center 2,695 7,341 2,160 1,570 1,485 1,482 1,564
Maize Number of samples distributed to users outside the CGIAR 2,587 5,005 3,006 5,769 4,902 8,899 6,684
Maize Sum of samples distributed within and outside the CGIAR 5,282 12,346 5,166 7,339 6,387 10,381 8,248
Maize Number of accessions distributed internally within the Center and to another CGIAR Center 1,391 5,267 2,046 1,265 1,269 1,065 1,460
Maize Number of accessions distributed to users outside the CGIAR 870 1,540 1,628 3,713 4,902 8,899 6,684
Maize Sum of accessions distributed within and outside the CGIAR 2,261 6,807 3,674 4,978 6,171 9,964 8,144
Wheat Number of samples distributed internally within the Center and to another CGIAR Center 36,454 4,273 3,466 10,505 7,381 4,509 7,398
Wheat Number of samples distributed to users outside the CGIAR 12,109 2,533 4,364 3,727 4,803 5,109 3,859
Wheat Sum of samples distributed within and outside the CGIAR 48,563 6,806 7,830 14,232 12,184 9,618 11,257
Wheat Number of accessions distributed internally within the Center and to another CGIAR Center 30,156 3,717 3,386 10,004 6,846 4,208 7,277
Wheat Number of accessions distributed to users outside the CGIAR 10,003 1,970 3,709 3,244 4,803 4,722 3,637
Wheat Sum of accessions distributed within and outside the CGIAR 40,159 5,687 7,095 13,248 11,649 8,930 10,914
All crops Total number external germplasm requests 204 245 195 245 161 297 306
All crops Number of samples distributed internally within the Center and to another CGIAR Center 39,149 11,614 5,626 12,075 8,866 5,991 8,962
All crops Number of samples distributed to users outside the CGIAR 14,696 7,538 7,370 9,496 9,705 14,008 10,543
All crops Sum of samples distributed within and outside the CGIAR 53,845 19,152 12,996 21,571 18,571 19,999 19,505
All crops Number of accessions distributed internally within the Center and to another CGIAR Center 31,547 8,984 5,432 11,269 8,115 5,273 8,737
All crops Number of accessions distributed to users outside the CGIAR 10,873 3,510 5,337 6,957 9,705 13,621 10,321
All crops Sum of accessions distributed within and outside the CGIAR 42,420 12,494 10,769 18,226 17,820 18,894 19,058

Publications by CIMMYT genebank staff in 2019

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
McLean R., F.D.; Camacho Villa, T.C.; Almekinders, C.; Pè, M.E.; Dell'Acqua, M.; Costich, D.E.  The abandonment of maize landraces over the last 50 years in Morelos, Mexico: a tracing study using a multi-level perspective. Agriculture and Human Values READ
Jing Li; Gou-Bo Chen; Rasheed, A.; Delin Li; Sonder, K.; Zavala Espinosa, C.; Jiankang Wang; Costich, D.E.; Schnable, P.S.; Hearne, S.; Huihui Li. Identifying loci with breeding potential across temperate and tropical adaptation via EigenGWAS and EnvGWAS. Molecular Ecology READ
Aremi R. Contreras-Toledo, Moisés Cortés-Cruz, Denise E. Costich, Ma. de Lourdes Rico-Arce, Joana Magos Brehm and Nigel Maxted Diversity and conservation priorities of crop wild relatives in Mexico Plant Genetic Resources READ
Velu, G.; Crespo Herrera, L. A.; Guzman, C.; Huerta-Espino, J.; Payne, T.; Singh, R.P. Assessing genetic diversity to breed competitive biofortified wheat with enhanced grain ZN and FE concentrations Frontiers in plant science READ
Morgounov, A.I.; Ozdemir, F.; Keser, M.; Akin, B.; Payne, T.S.; Braun, H.J. International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: history, activities, impact and future. 2019. Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering READ
Rosyara, U.R.; Kishii, M; Payne, T.S.; Sansaloni, C.P.; Singh, R.P.; Braun, H.J.; Dreisigacker, S. Genetic contribution of synthetic hexaploid wheat to CIMMYT’s spring bread wheat breeding germplasm.  Scientific Reports READ
Emily Gordon . Mina Kaviani . Sateesh Kagale . Thomas Payne . Alireza Navabi Genetic diversity and population structure of synthetic hexaploid-derived wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions Genet Resour Crop Evol READ
Nayelli Hernández-Espinosa, Thomas Payne, Julio Huerta-Espino, Fausto Cervantes, Héctor Gonzalez-Santoyo, Karim Ammar, Carlos Guzmán Preliminary characterization for grain quality traits and high and low molecular weight glutenins subunits composition of durum wheat landraces from Iran and Mexico Journal of Cereal Science READ
M. Gianella, A. Balestrazzi, A. Pagano, J. V.Muller, A. C. Kyratzis, D. Kikodze, M. Canella, A. Mondoni, G. Rossi & F. Guzzon Heteromorphic seeds of wheat wild relatives show germination niche differentiation Plant Biology READ

Publications by CIMMYT genebank staff in 2018

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
Crespo-Herrera, L.A., Crossa, J., Huerta-Espino, J., Vargas, M., Mondal, S., Velu, G., Payne, T.S., Braun, H.J., Singh, R.P. Genetic gains for grain yield in CIMMYT’s semi-arid wheat yield trials grown in suboptimal environments. Crop Science READ
Sukhwinder-Singh Vikram, P., Sehgal, D., Burgueño, J., Sharma, A., Singh, S.K., Sansaloni, C.P., Joynson, R., Brabbs, T., Ortiz, C., Solís Moya, E., Velu, G., Gupta, N., Sidhu, H.S., Ashwani K. Basandrai, Basandrai, D., Ledesma-Ramires, L., Suaste-Franco, M.P., Fuentes Dávila, G., Ireta Moreno, J., Sonder, Kai, Vaibhav K. Singh, Singh, S., Sajid Shokat, Mian A.R. Arif, Khalil A. Laghari, Puja Srivastava, Bhavani, S., Satish Kumar, Dharam Pal, Jaiswal, J.P., Kumar, U., Harinder K. Chaudhary, Crossa, J., Payne, T.S., Imtiaz, M., Sohu, V.S., Gyanendra Pratap Singh, Bains, N., Hall, A.J.W., Pixley, K.V.. Harnessing genetic potential of wheat germplasm banks through impact-oriented-prebreeding for future food and nutritional security.  Scientific Reports READ
Morgounov, A.I.,Abugalieva, A.I.,Akan, K.,Akın, B.,Baenziger, S.,Bhatta, M.R.,Dababat, A.A.,Demir, L.,Dutbayev, Y.,Moustapha El Bouhssini,Erginbas-Orakci, G., Kishii, M.,Keser, M., Koc, E., Kurespek, A., Mujeeb-Kazi, A., Yorgancılar, A., Ozdemir, F., Ozturk, I., Payne, T.S., Qadimaliyeva, G., Shamanin, V., Subasi, K., Suleymanova, G., Yakisir, E., Zelenskiy, Y. High-yielding winter synthetic hexaploid wheats resistant to multiple diseases and pest. Plant Genetic Resources READ
Kumar, J., Saripalli, G., Gahlaut, V. et al.  Genetics of Fe, Zn, β-carotene, GPC and yield traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using multi-locus and multi-traits GWAS. Euphytica READ
Humberto Reyes-Valdes, M., Burgueno, J., Singh, S., Martinez, O., Paola Sansaloni, C. An informational view of accession rarity and allele specificity in germplasm banks for management and conservation. PLoS ONE READ
Gordon, E., Kaviani, M., Kagale, S., Payne, T., Navabi, A. Genetic diversity and population structure of synthetic hexaploid-derived wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions. Genet Resour Crop Evol (2018).  READ
Contreras-Toledo, A. R., M. A. Cortés-Cruz, D. Costich, M. de Lourdes Rico-Arce, J. M. Brehm, and N. Maxted. A crop wild relative inventory for Mexico. Crop Science READ
Velu, G.; Crespo Herrera, L. A.; Guzman, C.; Huerta-Espino, J.; Payne, T.; Singh, R.P. Assessing genetic diversity to breed competitive biofortified wheat with enhanced grain ZN and FE concentrations Frontiers in plant science READ

Publications by CIMMYT genebank staff in 2017

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
Contreras-Toledo, A. R., M. A. Cortés-Cruz, D. Costich, M. de Lourdes Rico-Arce, J. M. Brehm, and N. Maxted. A crop wild relative inventory for Mexico. Crop Science READ
Reynolds, M.P.,Pask, A., Hoppitt, W.J.E., Sonder, K., Sukumaran, S., Molero, G., Saint Pierre, C.,Payne, T.S., Singh, R.P., Braun, H.J., Gonzalez, F.G., Terrile, I.I., Barma, N.C.D, Abdul Hakim, M., He Zhonghu, Zheru Fan, Novoselovic, D., Maghraby, M., Gad, K.I.M., Galal, E.G., Hagras, A., Mohamed M. Mohamed, Morad, A.F.A., Kumar, U., Gyanendra Pratap Singh, Naik, R., Kalappanavar, I.K., Biradar, S., Prasad, S.V.S., Chatrath, R., Sharma, I., Panchabhai, K., Sohu, V.S., Gurvinder Singh Mavi, Vinod Kumar Mishra, Balasubramaniam, A., Jalal Kamali, M.R., Khodarahmi, M., Dastfal, M., Tabib Ghaffary, S.M., Jafarby, J., Nikzad, A.R., Moghaddam, H.A., Hassan Ghojogh, Mehraban, A., Solís Moya, E., Camacho Casas, M.A., Figueroa López, P., Ireta Moreno, J., Alvarado Padilla, J.I., Borbón Gracia, A., Torres, A., Quiche, YN., Upadhyay, S.R., Pandey, D., Imtiaz, M., Rehman, M.U., Hussain, M., Hussain, M., Ud-din, R., Qamar, M., Muhammad Kundi, Mujahid, M.Y., Ahmad, G., Khan, A.J., Mehboob Ali Sial, Mustatea, P., Well, E. von, Ncala, M., Groot, S. de, H. Strategic crossing of biomass and harvest index—source and sink—achieves genetic gains in wheat. Euphytica READ
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