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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)

Wellhausen-Anderson Genetic Resources Collections

CIMMYT manages diverse collections of maize and wheat.

A CIMMYT technician counts maize seeds in the CIMMYT genebank.
A CIMMYT technician counts maize seeds in the CIMMYT genebank. Credit: Getty Images Reportage photographer Juan Arrendodo

The wheat collection numbers about 150,000 accessions from more than 100 countries, and consists of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale landraces, cultivars, genetic stocks, breeders’ materials and wild relatives. The maize collection of 28,000 accessions includes the world’s largest collection of maize landraces, created and maintained by farmers over many generations, as well as wild teosinte and Tripsacum wild relatives of maize.

CIMMYT is actively assessing the diversity of the maize and wheat seed collections using genomics technologies. Developing links between accession data and data from breeders are another focus of work. The genebank has been a pioneer in using GRIN-Global and in establishing a QMS. Several operations are certified to ISO 9001:2008 standard.

The Seed Health Unit ensures that all seed conserved in the genebank, as well as any seed imported to or exported from any of CIMMYT’s research locations, meets international phytosanitary standards. The Seed Health Unit has attained ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation.

Useful information

Genetic Resources Program director: Kevin Pixley
Maize germplasm bank manager: Denise Costich
Wheat germplasm bank manager: Tom Payne
Seed health laboratory manager: Monica Mezzalama

Maize

Wheat

Website

Key performance indicators of CGIAR genebanks, 2012-2020

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Maize 1. Total number of accessions 27,820 28,067 28,316 28,339 28,446 28,494 28,746 28,677
Maize 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 14,848 18,866 17,551 18,887 17,470 18,055 17,676 28,392
Maize 3. Number of seed accessions 27,820 28,067 28,316 28,339 28,333 28,494 28,746 28,677
Maize 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maize 5. Number of live plant accessions 161 161 161 146 113 161 161 161
Maize 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 8,334 8,334 8,334 24,575 21,465 21,465 21,454 21,555
Maize 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maize 8. Number of wild species accessions 209 241 267 176
Wheat 1. Total number of accessions 147,706 149,764 152,835 154,744 154,476 155,325 155,325 159,568
Wheat 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 117,533 128,797 131,438 139,086 140,331 141,345 127,649 105,291
Wheat 3. Number of seed accessions 147,706 149,764 152,835 154,744 154,476 155,325 155,325 159,568
Wheat 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wheat 5. Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wheat 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 74,596 91,103 91,103 91,103 125,011 125,011 125,011 115,434
Wheat 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wheat 8. Number of wild species accessions 7,241 6,374 3,192 2,930

Genebank operations, 2012-2020

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Maize 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 32,217 32,243
Maize 2. Number accessions received 0 712 1 19 0 0 389 0
Maize 3. Number accessions regenerated 191 279 210 78 187 265 82 71 5
Maize 4. Number accessions multiplied 1,591 1,056 1,292 694 530 254 316 440 496
Maize 5. Number accessions health tested 1,982 2,538 962 2,499 1,645 1,354 2,681 1,615 1,167
Maize 6. Number accessions cleaned 4 114 48 144 1,439 128 0 60 116
Maize 7. Number accessions viability tested 734 1,290 1,037 1,440 881 1,299 2,014 2,671 1,912
Wheat 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 142,283 146,505
Wheat 2. Number accessions received 2,142 5,526 2,058 3,071 1,909 3,317 1,163 1,036 1,182
Wheat 3. Number accessions regenerated 6,852 4,927 10,947 5,467 5,109 1,289 3,720 955
Wheat 4. Number accessions multiplied 8,000 7,420 2,389 1,073 2,539 7,380 1,869 3,047 105
Wheat 5. Number accessions health tested 18,688 16,179 11,873 7,096 16,116 1,607 15,178 17,798 17,955
Wheat 6. Number accessions cleaned 233 3,706 1,116 750 0 0 0 0
Wheat 7. Number accessions viability tested 6,562 11,790 13,527 9,667 8,459 11,776 6,600 6,418 1,319

Number of samples distributed to users within and outside the CGIAR, 2012-2020

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
All crops 1. Total number external germplasm requests 204 245 195 245 161 297 306 159
Maize 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 2,695 7,341 2,160 1,570 1,485 1,482 1,564 1,308
Maize 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 2,587 5,005 3,006 5,769 4,902 8,899 6,684 3,781
Maize 4. Total number of samples distributed 5,282 12,346 5,166 7,339 6,387 10,381 8,248 5,089
Maize 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 1,391 5,267 2,046 1,265 1,269 1,065 1,460 1,248
Maize 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 870 1,540 1,628 3,713 4,902 8,899 6,684 3,576
Maize 7. Total number of accessions distributed 2,261 6,807 3,674 4,978 6,171 9,964 8,144 4,824
Maize 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 8,899 6,684 3,576
Maize 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 2,666 4,689 3,194 2,199
Wheat 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 36,454 4,273 3,466 10,505 7,381 4,509 7,398 2,009
Wheat 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 12,109 2,533 4,364 3,727 4,803 5,109 3,859 3,219
Wheat 4. Total number of samples distributed 48,563 6,806 7,830 14,232 12,184 9,618 11,257 5,228
Wheat 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 30,156 3,717 3,386 10,004 6,846 4,208 7,277 1,792
Wheat 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 10,003 1,970 3,709 3,244 4,803 4,722 3,637 3,197
Wheat 7. Total number of accessions distributed 40,159 5,687 7,095 13,248 11,649 8,930 10,914 4,989
Wheat 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 4,722 3,637 3,197
Wheat 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 4,294 4,661 2,903

Genebank Platform publications, 2017-2020

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
Crespo-Herrera, L.A., Crossa, J., Huerta-Espino, J., Vargas, M., Mondal, S., Velu, G., Payne, T.S., Braun, H.J., Singh, R.P. Genetic gains for grain yield in CIMMYT’s semi-arid wheat yield trials grown in suboptimal environments. Crop Science READ
Sukhwinder-Singh Vikram, P., Sehgal, D., Burgueño, J., Sharma, A., Singh, S.K., Sansaloni, C.P., Joynson, R., Brabbs, T., Ortiz, C., Solís Moya, E., Velu, G., Gupta, N., Sidhu, H.S., Ashwani K. Basandrai, Basandrai, D., Ledesma-Ramires, L., Suaste-Franco, M.P., Fuentes Dávila, G., Ireta Moreno, J., Sonder, Kai, Vaibhav K. Singh, Singh, S., Sajid Shokat, Mian A.R. Arif, Khalil A. Laghari, Puja Srivastava, Bhavani, S., Satish Kumar, Dharam Pal, Jaiswal, J.P., Kumar, U., Harinder K. Chaudhary, Crossa, J., Payne, T.S., Imtiaz, M., Sohu, V.S., Gyanendra Pratap Singh, Bains, N., Hall, A.J.W., Pixley, K.V.. Harnessing genetic potential of wheat germplasm banks through impact-oriented-prebreeding for future food and nutritional security.  Scientific Reports READ
Morgounov, A.I.,Abugalieva, A.I.,Akan, K.,Akın, B.,Baenziger, S.,Bhatta, M.R.,Dababat, A.A.,Demir, L.,Dutbayev, Y.,Moustapha El Bouhssini,Erginbas-Orakci, G., Kishii, M.,Keser, M., Koc, E., Kurespek, A., Mujeeb-Kazi, A., Yorgancılar, A., Ozdemir, F., Ozturk, I., Payne, T.S., Qadimaliyeva, G., Shamanin, V., Subasi, K., Suleymanova, G., Yakisir, E., Zelenskiy, Y. High-yielding winter synthetic hexaploid wheats resistant to multiple diseases and pest. Plant Genetic Resources READ
Kumar, J., Saripalli, G., Gahlaut, V. et al.  Genetics of Fe, Zn, β-carotene, GPC and yield traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using multi-locus and multi-traits GWAS. Euphytica READ
Humberto Reyes-Valdes, M., Burgueno, J., Singh, S., Martinez, O., Paola Sansaloni, C. An informational view of accession rarity and allele specificity in germplasm banks for management and conservation. PLoS ONE READ
Gordon, E., Kaviani, M., Kagale, S., Payne, T., Navabi, A. Genetic diversity and population structure of synthetic hexaploid-derived wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions. Genet Resour Crop Evol (2018).  READ
Contreras-Toledo, A. R., M. A. Cortés-Cruz, D. Costich, M. de Lourdes Rico-Arce, J. M. Brehm, and N. Maxted. A crop wild relative inventory for Mexico. Crop Science READ
Reynolds, M.P.,Pask, A., Hoppitt, W.J.E., Sonder, K., Sukumaran, S., Molero, G., Saint Pierre, C.,Payne, T.S., Singh, R.P., Braun, H.J., Gonzalez, F.G., Terrile, I.I., Barma, N.C.D, Abdul Hakim, M., He Zhonghu, Zheru Fan, Novoselovic, D., Maghraby, M., Gad, K.I.M., Galal, E.G., Hagras, A., Mohamed M. Mohamed, Morad, A.F.A., Kumar, U., Gyanendra Pratap Singh, Naik, R., Kalappanavar, I.K., Biradar, S., Prasad, S.V.S., Chatrath, R., Sharma, I., Panchabhai, K., Sohu, V.S., Gurvinder Singh Mavi, Vinod Kumar Mishra, Balasubramaniam, A., Jalal Kamali, M.R., Khodarahmi, M., Dastfal, M., Tabib Ghaffary, S.M., Jafarby, J., Nikzad, A.R., Moghaddam, H.A., Hassan Ghojogh, Mehraban, A., Solís Moya, E., Camacho Casas, M.A., Figueroa López, P., Ireta Moreno, J., Alvarado Padilla, J.I., Borbón Gracia, A., Torres, A., Quiche, YN., Upadhyay, S.R., Pandey, D., Imtiaz, M., Rehman, M.U., Hussain, M., Hussain, M., Ud-din, R., Qamar, M., Muhammad Kundi, Mujahid, M.Y., Ahmad, G., Khan, A.J., Mehboob Ali Sial, Mustatea, P., Well, E. von, Ncala, M., Groot, S. de, H. Strategic crossing of biomass and harvest index—source and sink—achieves genetic gains in wheat. Euphytica READ
McLean R., F.D.; Camacho Villa, T.C.; Almekinders, C.; Pè, M.E.; Dell'Acqua, M.; Costich, D.E.  The abandonment of maize landraces over the last 50 years in Morelos, Mexico: a tracing study using a multi-level perspective. Agriculture and Human Values READ
Jing Li; Gou-Bo Chen; Rasheed, A.; Delin Li; Sonder, K.; Zavala Espinosa, C.; Jiankang Wang; Costich, D.E.; Schnable, P.S.; Hearne, S.; Huihui Li. Identifying loci with breeding potential across temperate and tropical adaptation via EigenGWAS and EnvGWAS. Molecular Ecology READ
Aremi R. Contreras-Toledo, Moisés Cortés-Cruz, Denise E. Costich, Ma. de Lourdes Rico-Arce, Joana Magos Brehm and Nigel Maxted Diversity and conservation priorities of crop wild relatives in Mexico Plant Genetic Resources READ
Velu, G.; Crespo Herrera, L. A.; Guzman, C.; Huerta-Espino, J.; Payne, T.; Singh, R.P. Assessing genetic diversity to breed competitive biofortified wheat with enhanced grain ZN and FE concentrations Frontiers in plant science READ
Morgounov, A.I.; Ozdemir, F.; Keser, M.; Akin, B.; Payne, T.S.; Braun, H.J. International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: history, activities, impact and future. 2019. Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering READ
Rosyara, U.R.; Kishii, M; Payne, T.S.; Sansaloni, C.P.; Singh, R.P.; Braun, H.J.; Dreisigacker, S. Genetic contribution of synthetic hexaploid wheat to CIMMYT’s spring bread wheat breeding germplasm.  Scientific Reports READ
Emily Gordon . Mina Kaviani . Sateesh Kagale . Thomas Payne . Alireza Navabi Genetic diversity and population structure of synthetic hexaploid-derived wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions Genet Resour Crop Evol READ
Nayelli Hernández-Espinosa, Thomas Payne, Julio Huerta-Espino, Fausto Cervantes, Héctor Gonzalez-Santoyo, Karim Ammar, Carlos Guzmán Preliminary characterization for grain quality traits and high and low molecular weight glutenins subunits composition of durum wheat landraces from Iran and Mexico Journal of Cereal Science READ
M. Gianella, A. Balestrazzi, A. Pagano, J. V.Muller, A. C. Kyratzis, D. Kikodze, M. Canella, A. Mondoni, G. Rossi & F. Guzzon Heteromorphic seeds of wheat wild relatives show germination niche differentiation Plant Biology READ
Acevedo, M.; Pixley, K.V.; Zinyengere, N.; Meng, S.; Tufan, H.A.; Cichy, K.; Bizikova, L.; Isaacs, K.; Ghezzi-Kopel, K.; Porciello, J. A scoping review of adoption of climate-resilient crops by small-scale producers in low- and middle-income countries Nature Plants READ
Ocampo-Giraldo, V.; Camacho Villa, T.C. ; Costich, D.E. ; Vidal Martinez, A. ; Smale, M. ; Jamora, N. Dynamic conservation of genetic resources : rematriation of the maize landrace Jala Food Security READ
Guzzon, F.; Bello, P. ; Bradford, K.J. ; Mérida Guzman, M.A. ; Costich, D.E. Enhancing seed conservation in rural communities of Guatemala by implementing the dry chain concept Biodiversity and Conservation READ
Abbasov, M.; Sansaloni, C.P. ; Burgueño, J. ; Petroli, C.D. ; Akparov, Z. ; Aminov, N. ; Babayeva, S. ; Izzatullayeva, V. ; Hajiyev, E. ; Rustamov, K. ; Mammadova, S.A. ; Amri, A. ; Payne, T.S. Genetic diversity analysis using DArTseq and SNP markers in populations of Aegilops species from Azerbaijan Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution READ
Li,J.; Li,D.; Zavala Espinosa,C.; Trejo Pastor, V.; Rasheed,A.; Palacios Rojas, N.; Wang,J.; Santacruz Varela, A.; de Almeida Silva, N.C.; Schnable, P.S.; Costich, D.E.;Li, H. Genome-wide analyses reveal footprints of divergent selection and popping-related traits in CIMMYT's maize inbred lines Journal of Experimental Botany READ
Halewood, Michael, Nelissa Jamora, Isabel Noriega, Noelle Anglin, Peter Wenzl, Thomas Payne, Marie-Noelle Ndjiondjop, Luigi Guarino, P. Kumar, Mariana Yazbek, Alice Muchugi, Vania Azevedo, Marimagne Tchamba, Chris Jones, Ramaiah Venuprasad, Nicolas Roux, Germplasm Acquisition and Distribution by CGIAR Genebanks Plants READ
Gianella, M.; Balestrazzi, A. ; Pagano, A. ; Müller, J.V. ; Kyratzis, A.C. ; Kikodze, D. ; Canella, M. ; Mondoni, A. ; Rossi, G. ; Guzzon, F. Heteromorphic seeds of wheat wild relatives show germination niche differentiation Plant Biology READ
Bishnoi, S.K.; Xinyao He ; Phuke, R.M. ; Kashyap, P.L. ; Alakonya, A. ; Chhokar, V. ; Singh, R.P. ; Singh, P.K. Karnal bunt : a re-emerging old foe of wheat Frontiers in Plant Science READ
Lai, D., A.B. Maimann, E. Macea, C.H. Ocampo, G. Cardona, M. Picmanová, B. Darbani, C.E. Olsen, D.G. Debouck, B. Raatz, B Lindberg Møller & F. Rook. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) : efforts toward containing the spread and impact of a devastating transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa Virus Research READ
Hernandez Espinosa, N.; Laddomada, B. ; Payne, T.S. ; Huerta-Espino, J ; Velu, G. ; Ammar, K. ; Ibba, M.I. ; Pasqualone, A. ; Guzman, C. Nutritional quality characterization of a set of durum wheat landraces from Iran and Mexico LWT - Food Science and Technology READ
Canella, M.; Rossi, G. ; Mondoni, A. ; Guzzon, F. Promoting seed germination of Bunias erucago, a Mediterranean leafy vegetable Seed Science and Technology READ
De Almeida Silva, N.C.; Vidal, R. ; Bernardi Ogliari, J. ; Costich, D.E. ; Jiafa Chen Relationships among American popcorn and their links with landraces conserved in a microcenter of diversity Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution READ
Juliana, P.; Singh, R.P. ; Braun, H.J. ; Huerta-Espino, J. ; Crespo-Herrera, L.A. ; Payne, T.S. ; Poland, J.A. ; Shrestha, S. ; Kumar, U. ; Joshi, A.K. ; Imtiaz, M. ; Rahman, M.M. ; Toledo, F.H. Retrospective quantitative genetic analysis and genomic prediction of global wheat yields Frontiers in Plant Science READ
Prashant Vikram ; Jorge Franco ; Juan Burgueño ; Huihui Li ; Deepmala Sehgal ; Carolina Saint-Pierre ; Cynthia Ortiz ; Vaibhav Kumar Singh ; Clay Sneller ; Achla Sharma ; Maria Tattaris ; Carlos Guzman ; Javier Pena ; Carolina Paola Sansaloni ; Jaime Amad Strategic use of Iranian bread wheat landrace accessions for genetic improvement: Core set formulation and validation. Plant Breeding READ
Aberkane, H., Payne, T., Kishi, M. Smyle, M, Amri, A, & Nelissa Jamora Transferring diversity of goat grass to farmers’ fields through the development of synthetic hexaploid wheat Food Security READ
Maryami, Z.; Huertas-García, A.B. ; Azimi, M.R. ; Hernandez Espinosa, N. ; Payne, T.S. ; Cervantes, F. ; Velu, G. ; Ibba, M.I. ; Guzman, C. Variability for glutenins, gluten quality, iron, zinc and phytic acid in a set of one hundred and fifty-eight common wheat landraces from Iran Agronomy READ
Sansaloni, C., Franco, J., Santos, B. … Kehel, Z, … et al.  Diversity analysis of 80,000 wheat accessions reveals consequences and opportunities of selection footprints. Nature Communications READ
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