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International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

Genetic Resources Centre

IITA’s genebank is responsible for a range of crops important for food security in Africa. These include seed crops such as Bambara groundnut, cowpea, maize, soybean, African yam bean and other legume species and clonal crops such as banana, cassava and yam, which require very different methods of conservation.

IITA’s medium-term storage. Seeds conserved in medium-term storage are kept at 4 degrees celsius.
IITA’s medium-term storage. Seeds conserved in medium-term storage are kept at 4°C. Credit: Crop Trust

Crops that produce orthodox seeds are maintained in medium-term storage (5°C and 30–35% relative humidity) or long-term storage (–20°C). Clonal crops are maintained in field genebanks and in vitro.

The IITA genebank collaborates with CGIAR breeders of maize, banana, grain legumes and roots and tubers.

The germplasm health unit is well established. Work is taking place to establish a high-throughput procedure for cleaning yam accessions of pests and diseases.

Useful information

Genebank Manager: Michael Abberton
Head of GHU: Lava Kumar
Key staff: Badara Gueye, In vitro specialist; Tchamba Marimagne, Database manager.

Banana

Cassava

Cowpea

Maize

Yam

External links

IITA Genetic Resources Center Website
Search IITA’s crop databases

Key performance indicators of CGIAR genebanks, 2012-2020

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Banana 1. Total number of accessions 335 247 321 321 321 393 393 393 392
Banana 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 94 162 203 203 191 208 228 359 379
Banana 3. Number of seed accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Banana 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 335 247 321 321 321 393 393 393 392
Banana 5. Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0
Banana 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Banana 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 113 118 118 118 118 118
Banana 8. Number of wild species accessions - - - -
Cassava 1. Total number of accessions 3,449 2,740 3,251 3,398 3,398 3,184 3,184 3,184 3,184
Cassava 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 1,629 1,685 1,238 1,632 1,873 1,910 2,035 2,320 2,526
Cassava 3. Number of seed accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cassava 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 3,449 2,740 3,251 3,398 3,398 3,184 3,184 3,184 3,184
Cassava 5. Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cassava 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cassava 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 1,556 2,227 1,749 2,151 1,757 1,570 1,588
Cassava 8. Number of wild species accessions 25 - 25 -
Cocoyam 1. Total number of accessions 27 25 15 13 13 13 0 0 0
Cocoyam 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 3. Number of seed accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 27 25 15 13 13 13 0
Cocoyam 5. Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 8. Number of wild species accessions - - - -
Cowpea 1. Total number of accessions 15,371 15,371 15,113 15,115 15,115 17,051 17,051 17,051 17,051
Cowpea 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 1,500 2,156 5,637 7,963 10,722 15,755 16,005 16,205 16,695
Cowpea 3. Number of seed accessions 15,371 15,371 15,113 15,115 15,115 17,051 17,051 17,051 17,051
Cowpea 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cowpea 5. Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cowpea 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 8,810 8,810 8,810 8,810 8,810 8,810 8,810 11,512 14,962
Cowpea 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cowpea 8. Number of wild species accessions 1,936 1,936 1,936 1,936
Maize 1. Total number of accessions 1,581 1,581 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561
Maize 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 600 600 900 900 143 948 1,148 1,378 1,378
Maize 3. Number of seed accessions 1,581 1,581 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561
Maize 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maize 5. Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maize 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 406 406 406 406 406 406 768 768 768
Maize 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maize 8. Number of wild species accessions - - -
Misc. legumes 1. Total number of accessions 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,747 6,747
Misc. legumes 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 1,595 1,595 319 1,821 2,873 5,930 6,620 6,620 6,620
Misc. legumes 3. Number of seed accessions 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,623 6,747 6,747
Misc. legumes 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Misc. legumes 5. Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Misc. legumes 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 2,445 2,481 2,481 2,545 2,545 2,545 2,545 3,112 4,096
Misc. legumes 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Misc. legumes 8. Number of wild species accessions - - - -
Yam 1. Total number of accessions 3,156 3,801 3,789 5,839 5,839 5,839 5,839 5,839 5,839
Yam 2. Total number of accessions that are currently available 0 88 180 653 864 1,220 1,433 1,504 1,504
Yam 3. Number of seed accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yam 4. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions 3,156 3,801 3,789 5,839 5,839 5,839 5,839 5,839 5,839
Yam 5. Number of live plant accessions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yam 6. Number of seed accessions held in long-term storage and safety duplicated at two levels 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yam 7. Number of vegetatively propagated accessions in cryopreservation or safety duplicated as in vitro 0 0 1,035 1,243 1,021 1,232 882 2,073 2,076
Yam 8. Number of wild species accessions 441 441 441 -

Genebank operations, 2012-2020

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Banana 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 275 275
Banana 2. Number accessions received 0 0 123 0 37 0 0 0 0
Banana 3. Number accessions regenerated 0 0 1 0 7 0 393 0 0
Banana 4. Number accessions multiplied 582 462 632 317 321 786 393 393 392
Banana 5. Number accessions health tested 79 45 147 0 244 44 28 165 20
Banana 6. Number accessions cleaned 0 37 86 0 53 17 20 131 20
Banana 7. Number accessions viability tested 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cassava 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 3,184 3,184
Cassava 2. Number accessions received 0 0 0 0 39 2,151 0 0 0
Cassava 3. Number accessions regenerated 0 0 0 0 242 3,184 3,184 3,184 3,184
Cassava 4. Number accessions multiplied 2,787 2,164 4,128 2,428 2,469 2,470 2,721 2,769 3,030
Cassava 5. Number accessions health tested 541 59 213 435 441 58 170 238 212
Cassava 6. Number accessions cleaned 454 56 203 394 367 37 125 285 206
Cassava 7. Number accessions viability tested 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 0 0
Cocoyam 2. Number accessions received - - - - - - -
Cocoyam 3. Number accessions regenerated - - - - - - - - -
Cocoyam 4. Number accessions multiplied - 25 15 13 13 13 - - -
Cocoyam 5. Number accessions health tested - - - - - - - - -
Cocoyam 6. Number accessions cleaned - - - - - - - - -
Cocoyam 7. Number accessions viability tested - - - - - - -
Cowpea 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 17,825 17,825
Cowpea 2. Number accessions received 966 326 0 0 1,293 0 250 0 0
Cowpea 3. Number accessions regenerated 0 924 0 2,365 0 222 250 200 450
Cowpea 4. Number accessions multiplied 300 0 2,200 0 831 205 1,698 250 90
Cowpea 5. Number accessions health tested 0 659 2,591 3,461 3,006 3,298 1,457 2,027 817
Cowpea 6. Number accessions cleaned 0 656 2,360 2,849 2,759 2,168 1,450 1,250 386
Cowpea 7. Number accessions viability tested 4,787 11,372 6,879 6,879 1,000 1,000 1,939 100 215
Maize 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 1,561 1,561
Maize 2. Number accessions received 199 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maize 3. Number accessions regenerated 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 91 30
Maize 4. Number accessions multiplied 0 0 100 45 98 200 200 230 200
Maize 5. Number accessions health tested 0 0 0 45 100 200 300 230 133
Maize 6. Number accessions cleaned 0 0 0 45 98 161 300 219 118
Maize 7. Number accessions viability tested 0 689 27 27 98 136 100 100 200
Misc. legumes 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 0 0
Misc. legumes 2. Number accessions received 0 0 0 47 374 0 18 124 0
Misc. legumes 3. Number accessions regenerated 0 0 0 0 1,946 174 173 0 1,346
Misc. legumes 4. Number accessions multiplied 0 1,010 1,532 1,418 0 888 100 200 1,996
Misc. legumes 5. Number accessions health tested 0 65 0 1,426 1,946 1,314 702 83 500
Misc. legumes 6. Number accessions cleaned 0 60 0 1,169 1,385 1,110 700 80 300
Misc. legumes 7. Number accessions viability tested 0 18 2,428 1,447 568 1,000 100 300 310
Yam 1. Number of accessions with passport & characterization data available . . . . . . . 5,839 5,839
Yam 2. Number accessions received 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90
Yam 3. Number accessions regenerated 0 0 0 0 0 5,839 5,839 5,839 88
Yam 4. Number accessions multiplied 1,806 1,231 3,276 1,923 5,836 2,354 2,881 2,937 3,509
Yam 5. Number accessions health tested 0 98 110 582 594 403 283 225 0
Yam 6. Number accessions cleaned 0 88 103 473 483 356 213 71 0
Yam 7. Number accessions viability tested 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Number of samples distributed to users within and outside the CGIAR, 2012-2020

HINT: Use the search key to filter the data. For descriptions of performance indicators, click here.
Crop Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
All crops 1. Total number external germplasm requests 91 30 59 256 161 112 103 100 71
Banana 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 6 100 0 116 27 10 10 21 19
Banana 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 8 0 13 1 25 69 66 144 61
Banana 4. Total number of samples distributed 14 100 13 117 52 79 76 165 80
Banana 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 6 4 0 24 27 10 10 20 19
Banana 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 4 0 13 1 25 78 66 142 61
Banana 7. Total number of accessions distributed 10 4 13 25 52 88 76 162 80
Banana 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 66 142 61
Banana 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 46 60 134 52
Cassava 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 8 0 0 0 5 9 118 47 3
Cassava 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 2 0 124 3 3 242 15 60 9
Cassava 4. Total number of samples distributed 10 0 124 3 8 251 133 107 12
Cassava 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 8 0 0 0 5 9 20 44 3
Cassava 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 2 0 124 3 3 209 3 59 9
Cassava 7. Total number of accessions distributed 10 0 124 3 8 218 23 103 12
Cassava 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 3 59 9
Cassava 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 199 3 39 8
Cocoyam 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 4. Total number of samples distributed 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 7. Total number of accessions distributed 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoyam 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 0
Cocoyam 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 0 0
Cowpea 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 283 1,544 751 713 950 3 95 310 150
Cowpea 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 368 165 344 1,334 802 1,737 3,782 806 1,955
Cowpea 4. Total number of samples distributed 651 1,709 1,095 2,047 1,752 1,740 3,877 1,116 2,105
Cowpea 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 273 1,084 515 329 925 3 91 307 127
Cowpea 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 358 149 291 764 693 1,521 3,488 688 1,737
Cowpea 7. Total number of accessions distributed 631 1,233 806 1,093 1,618 1,524 3,579 995 1,864
Cowpea 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 3,488 688 1,737
Cowpea 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 1,365 2,472 646 1,637
Maize 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 0 0 0 0 56 0 0 0 0
Maize 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 17 51 29 60 56 201 225 285 132
Maize 4. Total number of samples distributed 17 51 29 60 112 201 225 285 132
Maize 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 0 0 0 0 56 0 0 0 0
Maize 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 17 38 29 59 56 199 195 193 127
Maize 7. Total number of accessions distributed 17 38 29 59 112 199 195 193 127
Maize 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 199 195 193 127
Maize 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 199 195 193 125
Misc. legumes 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 136 5 500 664 102 0 6 39 6
Misc. legumes 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 596 536 906 1,902 670 1,052 1,385 1,934 1,706
Misc. legumes 4. Total number of samples distributed 732 541 1,406 2,566 772 1,052 1,385 1,973 1,712
Misc. legumes 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 133 5 466 576 97 0 6 37 6
Misc. legumes 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 564 358 685 1,173 630 705 888 1,572 1,317
Misc. legumes 7. Total number of accessions distributed 697 363 1,151 1,749 727 705 894 1,609 1,323
Misc. legumes 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 888 1,572 1,317
Misc. legumes 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 632 888 1,374 1,215
Yam 2. Number of samples distributed within the CGIAR 0 0 9 420 13 53 20 34 31
Yam 3. Number of samples distributed outside the CGIAR 2 0 27 38 28 71 9 93 127
Yam 4. Total number of samples distributed 2 0 36 458 41 124 29 127 158
Yam 5. Number of accessions distributed within the CGIAR 0 0 9 28 12 52 20 24 13
Yam 6. Number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR 2 0 27 37 25 71 9 93 126
Yam 7. Total number of accessions distributed 2 0 36 65 37 123 29 117 139
Yam 8. Total number of accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 9 93 126
Yam 9. Total number of unique accessions distributed outside the CGIAR with SMTA 67 9 93 126

Genebank Platform publications, 2017-2020

Recent publications with at least one CGIAR genebank staff as author. HINT: Use the search key to filter the data.
Authors Article title Publication name URL
onibare, M. A., I. O. Ayoola, B. Gueye, M. T. Abberton, R. D’Souza and N. Kuhnert Leaves metabolomic profiling of Musa acuminataaccessions using UPLC–QTOF–MS/MS and their antioxidant activity. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization READ
Lebot, V., Malapa, R., Abraham, K., Molisale, T., Van Kien, N., Gueye, B., Waki, J. Secondary metabolites content may clarify the traditional selection process. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution READ
Whitehouse, K.J., Owoborode, O.F., Adebayo,O.O., Oyatomi,O., Olaniyan,A., Abberton,M., Hay, F.R. Further evidence that the genebank standards for drying orthodox seeds. Biopreservation and Biobanking READ
Fatokun, C., Girma, G., Abberton, M., Gedil,M., Unachukwu, N., Oyatomi, O., Yusuf, M. Rabbi, I.Y., Boukar, O. Genetic diversity and population structure of a mini-core subset. Scientific Reports READ
Choudhary, N., Bawa, V., Paliwal, R., Singh, B., Bhat, M., Mir, J.I., Gupta, M., Sofi, P.A., Thudi, M., Varshney, R.K., Mir., R.R. Gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose in common bean. PLoS-ONE READ
Kumari, S., Jaiswal, V.,Kumar Mishra, V., Paliwal, R., Singh Balyan, H., Kumar Gupta., P. QTL mapping for some grain traits in bread wheat. Physiol Mol Biol Plants READ
Vincent Lebot Benjamin Faloye Eric Okon Badara Gueye Simultaneous quantification of allantoin and steroidal saponins in yam (Dioscorea spp.) Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants READ
Jekayinoluwa, T. , Gueye, B. , Bhattacharjee, R. , Osibanjo, O.* , Shah, T. , Abberton, M. Agromorphologic, genetic and methylation profiling of Dioscorea and Musa species multiplied under three micropropagation systems PLoS One READ
Mayes, S. , Ho, W. K.* , Chai, H. H.* , Gao, X.* , Kundy, A. C.* , Mateva, K. I.* , Zahrulakmal, M.* , Hahiree, M. K.* , Kendabie, P. , Licea, L. C. , Massawe, C.* , Mabhaudhi, T.* , Modi, A. T.* , Berchie, J. N.* , Amoah, S.* , Faloye, B. , Abberton, M. , Oyatomi, O. , Azam-Ali, S. N. Bambara groundnut: an exemplar underutilised legume for resilience under climate change Planta READ
Adegboyega, T. T. , Abberton, M. , Abdelgadir, A. H. , Dianda, M. , Maziya-Dixon, B. , Oyatomi, O. , Ofodile, S. , Babalola, O. O.( Nutrient and antinutrient composition of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) seeds and tubers Journal of Food Quality READ
Paliwal R, Abberton M, Faloye B, Olaniyi O. Developing the role of legumes in West Africa under climate change. Current Opinion in Plant Biology READ
T.M. Jones, O.A. Oyatomi*, B.O. Akinyele, A.C. Odiyi, M.T. Abberton & F.R. Hay* Effect of high temperature drying on seed longevity of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) accessions. Seed Science and Technology READ
Ibukun O. Ayoola-Oresanya, Mubo A. Sonibare, Badara Gueye, Rajneesh Paliwal, Michael T. Abberton, Gertrud E. Morlock. Effect-directed profiling and identification of bioactive metabolites from field, in vitro -grown and acclimatized Musa spp. accessions using high-performance thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography READ
Aberkane H, Amri A, Belkadi B, Kehel Z, et al. Evaluation of durum wheat lines derived from interspecific crosses under drought and heat stress Crop Science READ
Awa Sarr, Amy Bodian, Kodjo Mawuena Gbedevi, Khadidiatou Ndoye Ndir, Oyatomi Olaniyi Ajewole, Badara Gueye, Daniel Foncéka, Elisabeth A.M.C. Diop, Baye Magatte Diop, Ndiaga Cissé, & Diaga Diouf Genetic diversity and population structure analyses of wild relatives and cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) from Senegal using simple sequence repeat markers. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter READ
Tamiru, A., Paliwal, R., Manthi, S.J. et al. Genome wide association analysis of a stemborer egg induced “call-for-help” defence trait in maize Sci Rep READ
Sharif B. M., Burgarella C., Cormier F., Mournet P., Causse S., Van K. N., Kaoh J., Rajaonah M. T., Lakshan S. R., Waki J., Bhattacharjee R., Gueye B., Pachakkil B., Arnau G., Chair H. (2020). Genome-wide genotyping elucidates the geographical diversification and dispersal of the polyploid and clonally propagated yam (Dioscorea alata L.). Annals of Botany READ
Bhattacharjee, R. , Agre, A. P. , Bauchet, G. J. , De Koeyer, D . , Lopez-Montes, A. , Kumar, P. L. , Abberton, M. , Adebola, P. O. , Asfaw, A. , Asiedu, R. Genotyping-by-sequencing to unlock genetic diversity and population structure in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata poir.) Agronomy READ
Boukar, O. , Abberton, M. , Oyatomi, O. , Togola, A. , Tripathi, L. , Fatokun, C. Introgression breeding in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.] Frontiers in Plant Science READ
McCouch, S. , Navabi, K. , Abberton, M. , Anglin, N. L. , Barbieri, R. L.* , Baum, M. , Bett, K. , Booker, H. , Brown, G. L. , Bryan, G. L. , Cattivelli, L. , Charest, D. , Eversole, K. , Freitas, M. , Ghamkhar, K. , Grattapaglia, D.* , Henry, R. , Inglis Mobilizing Crop Biodiversity Molecular Plant READ
Sánchez-Gutiérrez, R.A., Hanson, J., Jones, C., Jurado-Guerra, P., Santellano-Estrada, E., Melgoza-Castillo, A. & Morales-Nieto, C. Morphological characterization of buffelgrass with potential for forage and seed production Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana READá>
Hanson, J. & Ellis, R.H. Progress and challenges in ex situ conservation of forage germplasm: Grasses, herbaceous legumes and fodder trees Plants READ
Moita-Nassy, M. , Hauser, S. , Egwakhide, M. , Batawila, K.* , Kulakow, P. , Abberton, M. Rendement en feuilles et racines de trois varietes ameliorees de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) en reponse aux fertilisants organo-mineraux et a la recolte des feuilles au Sud-Ouest du Nigeria International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences READ
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