Wheat Diversity Tree

The Wheat Diversity Tree is a representation of the overall structure of crop diversity obtained by dividing the diversity within a crop genepool in a hierarchical manner. The structure of the tree is based on published information and consultation with experts.

Credits for contributing to the development of the Wheat Diversity Trees (in alphabetical order)

Literature consulted

Badaeva, Ekaterina D., et al. “Chromosomal passports provide new insights into diffusion of emmer wheat.” PloS one 10.5 (2015): e0128556.

Bernhardt, Nadine, et al. “Dated tribe-wide whole chloroplast genome phylogeny indicates recurrent hybridizations within Triticeae.” BMC Evolutionary Biology 17.1 (2017): 141.

Bertin, Pierre, et al. “High level of genetic diversity among spelt germplasm revealed by microsatellite markers.” Genome 47.6 (2004): 1043-1052.

CIMMYT. “Global strategy for the ex situ conservation with enhanced access to wheat, rye and Triticale genetic resources” (2007).

Kabbaj, Hafssa, et al. “Genetic diversity within a global panel of durum wheat (Triticum durum) landraces and modern germplasm reveals the history of alleles exchange.” Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017): 1277.

Karagöz, Alptekin. “Wheat landraces of Turkey.” Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 26.2 (2014): 149.

Kilian, Benjamin, et al. “Molecular diversity at 18 loci in 321 wild and 92 domesticate lines reveal no reduction of nucleotide diversity during Triticum monococcum (einkorn) domestication: implications for the origin of agriculture.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.12 (2007): 2657-2668.

Kilian, Benjamin, William Martin, and Francesco Salamini. “Genetic diversity, evolution and domestication of wheat and barley in the Fertile Crescent.” Evolution in Action. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010. 137-166.

Kilian, Benjamin, et al. “Aegilops.” Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 1-76.

Knüpffer, Helmut. “Triticeae genetic resources in ex situ genebank collections.” Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae. Springer, New York, NY, 2009. 31-79.

Hammer, Karl, and Helmut Knüpffer. “Genetic Resources of Triticum.” Advances in Wheat Genetics: From Genome to Field. Springer, Tokyo, 2015. 23-31.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. “Global strategy for the Ex situ Conservation with enhanced access to Wheat, Rye and Triticale genetic resources of Potato” (2007).

Luo, M-C., et al. “The structure of wild and domesticated emmer wheat populations, gene flow between them, and the site of emmer domestication.” Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114.6 (2007): 947-959.

Jaradat, Abdullah A. “Wheat landraces: a mini review.” Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture (2013): 20-29.

Lopes, Marta S., et al. “Exploiting genetic diversity from landraces in wheat breeding for adaptation to climate change.” Journal of Experimental Botany 66.12 (2015): 3477-3486.

Oliveira, Hugo R., et al. “Tetraploid wheat landraces in the Mediterranean basin: taxonomy, evolution and genetic diversity.” Plos one 7.5 (2012): e37063.

Özkan, Hakan, et al. “Geographic distribution and domestication of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides).” Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58.1 (2011): 11-53.

Rajaram, S., M. Van Ginkel, and R. A. Fischer. “CIMMYT’s wheat breeding mega-environments (ME).” Proceedings of the 8th International Wheat Genetic Symposium. 1993.

Raman, Harsh, et al. “Molecular diversity and genetic structure of modern and traditional landrace cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).” Crop and Pasture Science 61.3 (2010): 222-229.

Stodart, B. J., M. C. Mackay, and H. Raman. “Assessment of molecular diversity in landraces of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) held in an ex situ collection with Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT™).” Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58.12 (2008): 1174-1182

Stodart, B. J., M. Mackay, and H. Raman. “AFLP and SSR analysis of genetic diversity among landraces of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) from different geographic regions.” Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56.7 (2005): 691-697.

Zaharieva, Maria, Alain Bonjean, and Philippe Monneveux. “Saharan wheats: before they disappear.”Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 61.6 (2014): 1065-1084.

The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.